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AnP Ch 2 Part A

Chapter 2 part A

Matter Is anything that has mass and occupies space.
States of Matter Solid, Liquid and Gas
Energy Is the capacity to do work or put matter into motion.
Kinetic Energy Is energy in action, motion
Potential Energy Stored energy, not moving yet
Forms of energy Chemical, Electrical, Mechanical and Radiant.
Atoms Smallest non-living unit
Thermodynamics Energy being converted from one form to another.
Protons Carry a pos charge weigh 1 amu
Neutrons Have no charge. weight 1 amu
Electrons Carry a neg charge. weigh 0 amu. Involved in all chemical reactions.
Protons+Neutrons Atomic Weight
Protons and Electrons No charge
Planetary Model Simplified and outdated because it incorrectly depicts electrons in orbits.
Orbital Model Current model used that depicts orbitals, probable regions where an electron is most likely to be located.
Identify a Element Atomic Number, Mass Number, Isotopes and Atomic Weight.
Atomic Number Number of protons in nucleus and also electrons.
Mass Number Total number of protons and neutrons in nucleus.
Isotopes Atoms contain same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
Radioisotopes Isotopes that decompose to more stable forms. In contrast.
Radioactivity As isotope decays, subatomic particles that are being given off release a little energy
Molecule General term for 2 or more atoms bonded together.
Compound Specific molecule that has 2 or more different kinds of atoms bonded together.
Mixtures Solutions, Colloids and Susoensions
Solutions Are homogeneous and particles are dissolved. Usually Transparent.
Solvent Substances present in greatest amount. Does the Dissolving
Solute Substance dissolved in solvent. What is being dissolved.
Concentrations of Solutions Percent of Solute, Milligrams per deciliter and Molarity.
Colloids Also known as Emulsions, Heterogeneous, Particles not evenly mixed. Cloudy or Milky look.
Suspensions Heterogeneous, Mixtures that contain large and visible particles that do not settle. Italian Dressing.
Chemical Bonds Energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms.
Electron Shells The area around the nucleus.
Valance Shell The outer most electron shell.
Chemical Bonds Iconic, Covalent and Hydrogen
Iconic Bonds Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged.
Anion Neg charge, Atom that gained one or more electrons
Cation Pos charge, Atom that lost one or more electrons
Covalent Bonds Sharing of 2 or more valence shell electrons between 2 atoms.
Types of Covalent Bonds Polar and Non-polar
Non Polar Covalent Bonds Equal sharing of electrons between atoms, balanced. In a straight line.
Polar Covalent Bonds Unequal Sharing of electrons between 2 atoms. In a V shape.
Hydrogen Bonds Not a true bond, more of a weak magnetic attraction.
Chemical Equations Occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged or broken.
Reactants Substances entering into reaction together.
Products Chemical end products
Chemical Reactions Synthesis, Decomposition and Exchange.
Synthesis Combination, involve atoms or molecules combining to form large more complex molecule.
Decomposition Involve breakdown of a molecule into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms
Exchnge Reactions, also called displacement reactions involve both synthesis and decomposition.
Redox Reactions Atoms are reduced when they gain electrons and oxidized when they lose electrons.
Exergonic Reactions result in a net release of energy. Energy in.
Endergonic Reactions result in a net absorption of energy. Energy Out.
Catalysts Increase the rate of reaction without being chemically changed or becoming part of the product.
Created by: Jaytee07