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Student Learners section

Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs, which he theorized to be the unconscious desires that motivate people.
accommodations provide students access to the same curriculum as their grade-level peers but information is presented in a different way.
Albert Bandura a Canadian psychologist who developed the social learning theory.
Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination based on disabilities. In schools this includes activities that take place both on and off campus, including athletics and extracurricular activities.
attribution theory internal attribution is assumed when other people make mistakes or are victims, since individuals tend to see others as a predictable stereotype. When an individual make a mistake, he or she tends to view the cause as external.
B.F Skinner Skinner expanded on operant conditioning but focused on responding to environment in lieu of responding to stimuli
Basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) is conversational english
Benjemin Bloom contributed to the taxonomy of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning.
classic conditioning a practice that involves learning a response to stimuli or the environment.
classical conditioning a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a reflex response through conditioning.
code-switching happens when students slip into native language while speaking their second-language or vice versa.
congnitive academic language proficiency (CALP) is a student's ability to comprehend academic vocabulary in English.
cognitive disabilities are impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.
cognitive dissonance theory uneasiness is felt when an individual has conflicting thoughts.
cognitive domain deals with acquiring intellect.
cognitive processes involve acquiring new knowledge and skills and being able to apply new learning to new situations and draw conclusions from it.
differentiation means providing curricula for students based on their individual needs, including learning styles and level.
divergent thinkers are people who think more deeply and differently from other people.
Edward Thorndike his research initially led to operant conditioning:learning laws include the law of effect, the law of readiness, and the law of exercise.
engage means inspiring interest or motivations.
English-Language learner (ELL) students whose native language is not Englsih
English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) are objectives that not only support ESL instruction but also increase studens' academic readiness in the content areas.
Erick Erikson theory of psychosocial developments focus on reconciling individual needs with the needs of society through stages.
exceptionality is strength and weaknesses in academic functioning that requires extra attention to meet the needs of the student.
extrinsic motivation describes an external reward.
feedback information about performance.
foundational theorists people who provided the framework by which all current knowledge of cognitive processes is based.
individualized education plan (IEP) an annual meeting for each special education student that outlines the student's learning goals and identifies the accommodations and modifications that will be offered to the student.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) This act provides guidelines to schools to help address the individual needs of special educations.
intellectually gifted students with an IQ greater than 130.
intrinsic motivation describes and internal reward.
Jean Piaget a Swiss psychologist who was the first to study cognition in children. He identified stages of development and contributed to schema learning.
Jerome Bruner a constructivist theorist who contributed the three modes of representation to the field of cognitive developments.
John Dewey a pragmatic philosopher who viewed learning as a series of scientific inquiry and experimentation, he advocated a real-world experiences and volunteerism.
John Watson coined the term behaviorism, which objectively measures behavior in response to stimuli.
language acqusition is the process by which a new language is learned.
language impairments students have difficulty with comprehension.
Lawrence Kohlberg identified the stages of moral development.
learning styles research indicates that children learn in different ways.
learning theories describe how genetics, development, environment, motivation and emotions affect a student's ability to acquire and apply knowledge.
Lev Vygotsky a Russian psychologist who researched what has become the scocial development theory; more knowledgeable other (MKO) and zone of proximal development (ZPD) are the two main tenets of his philosophy.
metacognition means thinking about the learning process
modifications are changes made to the curriculum because students are so far behind they are unable to use the same curriculum as their peers.
moral domain deals with the acquisition of morals and values.
motivation theory explains the driving forces behind conduct.
motor disabilities are characterized by loss of movement, may be caused by injury or disease.
operant conditioning provides rewards or punishment as a motivation desired performance.
physical domain also called psychomotor domain, deals with all aspects of motor skill development.
positive reinforcement such as praise, recognition, or rewards, is encouraging a behavior to continue or improve by providing the student with something he or she values.
schema frameworks for understanding.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act provides services to all students in federally assisted programs who have physical or mental impairments that substantially limit one or more live activities.
self-determination theory according to this theory everyone has a perceived locus of causality.
self-efficacy is when a person believes that he or she is capable of achieving a learning goal.
self-motivation the drive from within that inspires a person to work towards something.
self-regulate means to maintain control of one's own emotional responses.
skills are the abilities to apply what has been learned.
Social domain is referred to as the effective or social-emotional domain and includes emotions, motivation, and attitudes.
zone of proximal development (ZPD) the space between what a child can do interdependently and the learning goal.
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