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Chp 9: Middle Ages

Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown

The Black Death Named for discoloration of body. Transfered by rats over trade routes. Populations cut nearly in half.
Popular Remedies Jews sought as scapegoats. Use of leeches. Flagellants
Flagellants Believed that beating themselves until they bled would bring Divine Intervention
Farm laborers & Skilled Artisans after the Black Death Farm laborers decreased in number, so wages rose, but gov froze wages to preplague hights. This led to peasant revolts. Number of skilled artisans rose, demand increased, economic power grew.
The Hundred Years War Began when English king Edward III claimed his right to French throne after death of Charles IV. The territorial proximity of England and France and their querral over Flanders fueled war.
English Success Due to long bow and military superiority
French Failure Started out in a better position: more people, more money, fighting on home ground. Loss due to territorial fighting and a lack of leadership.
Crecy, Pointiers, and Agincourt English victories
The Peace of Bretigny Recognized English holdings in France in exchange for Edward II renouncing his claim to the French throne.
Joan of Arc Peasant who claimed she heard the voices of saints, led to French win of Battle of Orleans. Inspired French. Was burned as a heretic by English
Pope Innocent III Transformed Church into secular power, creating papal monarchy with a political mission that included disposing of benefices and declaring saints
Pope Urban IV Continued secularization of Church by establishing its own alw court, Rota Romana, and by broadening the distribution of benefices. College of Cardinals became political.
Rota Romana Law court for papacy. Created by Urban IV
Boniface VIII Refused efforts to tax clergy. Issued Clericos laicos. Forced to get along with Philip the Fair of France. Issued Unam Sanctum.
Clericos laicos forbade tax of clergy without papal approval
Unam Sanctum declared temporal authority was subject to power of Church
Clement V Moved papacy to Avignon
Babylonian Captivity Allusion to biblical bondage of Israelites talking about Avignon papacy and political bondage
John XXII Tried to restore papacy to Rome
William of Ockham and Marsilius of Padua protested papal power
John Wycliffe Led lay movement called Lollards
John Huss Led popular lay movement- Hussites
The Great Schism occured when Pope Clement VII was elected by a council of cardinals 5 months after an Italian archbishop, Pope Urban VI had been elected. Both claimed power
Alexander V Other popes (Urban VI & Clement VII), deposed. Alex elected. Now 3 popes
Conciliar Movement effort to control regulate the actions of the pope by councils
Sacrosancta Devised at council of Constance (1414), recognized Roman Poep Gregory XII as pope
Council of Basil Direct negotion of doctrine with "heretics". Presentation of Four Articles of Prague. 3 out of 4 conceded
Four Articles of Prague Hussites Requests: 1.giving laity eucharist with cup as well as bread. 2. Free preaching 3. Exclusion of clergy from holding secular offices & ownong property 4. Punishment of laity who commit sins
Three Cultural Russian Groups Great Russians, White Russians, Little Russians
Boyars Wealthy landowners
Golden Horde Mongol empire
Kulicov Meadows Important defeat of Tatars that marked decline of Mongol rule
Ivan III (Great) Brings all northern Russia under Moscow's control and ends Mongol rule
Created by: rachael94