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Med terms quiz 2

Epithelial cells Epithelium
Keratinocytes Keratin
Melanocytes Skin color Melanin
Epidermis Epithelial cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes
Dermis Connective tissue Contains hair follicles, blood vessels, nerves, and glands Thermoregulation Four types of cells
Subcutaneous tissue Not part of skin Connects dermis to the muscles and organs below Fatty tissue Insulates structures from temperature extremes
Glands Sebaceous glands Sudoriferous glands Ceruminous glands
Other Integumentary Hair, Glands, Nails
Cyanosis Skin becomes blue tinges because oxygen doesn't reach blood
Diaphoresis Condition of profuse sweating
Necr/o Death
Scleraderma Skin hardens
Epitheli/o Covering
Py/o Pus
Laceration Cut in skin
Abrasion Scrape of skin
Contusion Bruise
Avulsion Tearing/ severing
Maceration Dissolution of the skin (skin rubs together)
Treatments requiring Hospital stay Abdominoplasty, Rhytidectomy, Blepharoplasty
Aging Skin in the Integumentary System collagen breakdown decrease in M + K cells decrease in seb glands hair follicles less productive irregular production of melanin
Complications to burns dehydration, shock, toxins, (infection)
Debridement removal of old skin
Ras/o scrape
Cosmetic Surgery Laser surgery Facial renewal Liposuction Hair implantation
Bone Function Provide protection and support Make movement possible Produce blood cells Store and release calcium and phosphorus
Bone of head and trunk Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, hyoid bone
Axial Skeleton Bone of head and trunk Cranial bones Facial bones Vertebral column Thoracic cage
Pectoral Girdle Connects arms to the thoracic cage
Pelvic Girdle Connects the legs to the axial skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton pectoral girdle pelvic girdle upper extremities lower extremities
Joint structures Articular cartilage Joint cavity Synovial membrane Synovial fluid Joint capsule
Kyph/o humpback
Lord/o swayback
Scoli/o curved
Tempor/o temporal bone
Mandibul/o mandible; lower jaw
Maxill/o maxilla; upper jaw
Xiph/o Sword
Stern/o sternum; breastbone
Coccyg/o coccyx; tailbone
Lumb/o lower back; loins
Sacr/o sacrum
Clavicul/o clavicle; collarbone
Radi/o radius
Uln/o ulnar
ili/o hip
Acetabul/o acetabulum; hip socket
Calcane/o heel
Femor/o femur; thigh bone
Fibul/o fibula
Patell/a; patell/o patella; kneecap
Burs/o Bursa
Tibi/o tibia; shin
Ortho- straight
Aging in the skeletal system Decreased bone density Degeneration of articular cartilage
Treatment of Fractures Treatment of fractures Open vs. closed Skeletal traction
Fractures Open (compound) fracture Closed (simple) fracture Pathological fracture
C1,C2…C7 numbering of Cervical vertebra
DDD degenerative disk disease
IP interphalangeal
L1, L2…L5 numbering of lumbar vertebra
LDD lumbar disc disease
MP metacarpophalangeal
OA osteoarthritis
RA rheumatoid arthritis
S1, S2…S5 numbering of sacral vertebra
T1, T2…T12 numbering of thoracic vertebra
TMJ temporomandibular joint
TKR total knee replacement
Myelogram test of spinal cord impulse conveyance
Muscular System Skeletal muscle is voluntary Cardiac and visceral muscles are involuntary
Ligaments Attach bone to bone
Tendons Attach muscle to bone
Skeletal Attachments Origin Muscles- attach to stable bone Insertion- muscle to moving bone
Major superficial muscles of the body Anterior Posterior
Flex/o Bend
Pronati/o Facing backward
Supinati/o Facing forward
Tens/o Stretch
Electr/o Electric
Fasci/o Fascia (band of tissue surrounding the muscle)
Kinesi/o Movement
Lei/o Smooth
Rhabd/o rod-shaped; striped; striated
Tenosynovi/o Tendon sheath
Ton/o Tone; tension
-asthenia No strength
-clonus Turmoil
-ion Process
-kinesia Movement; motion
-trophy Nourishment; growth
-thermy Heat
Aging of muscles Muscle atrophy - sarcopenia Disuse Male (decreased testosterone) Female (decreased estrogen) Decreased growth hormone Decreased nervous control
Common Diseases of muscles Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Strain
EMG Electromyography
ROM range of motion
PM & R Physical Medicine and Rehab
ADL Activities of daily living
IADL instrumental activities of daily living
Fasciorrhapy suturing the fascia
CNS (central nervous system) Spinal cord and the Brain
Peripheral nervous system Sensory neurons Motor neurons
Functions of the Nervous System Sensory Integrative Motor
Neurons Cell body Axon (Some have myelin sheath) Dendrites
Neuroglia Do not carry electrical impulses Protect the neurons by phagocytosis Provide nutrients
Synapse Electrical impulse transmission Gap between neuron and a muscle or between two neurons
Neurotransmitter Chemical Released from sac at end of neuron
Brain Part of the CNS Cerebrum
Cerebrum Hemispheres divided by longitudinal fissure Corpus callosum connect the hemispheres Cerebral cortex
Cerebrum-lobes Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
Cerebrum-Gyri (convolutions) Sulci and fissures
Brain Thalamus Hypothalamus Brain Stem Cerebellum
Brain stem Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata
Spinal Cord location Part of the CNS Starts at the medulla oblongata and ends at the conus medullaris
Spinal Cord nerves 31 pairs of nerves
Protective membranes of spinal cord Dura mater Arachnoid membrane Pia mater
Spinal Cord Subdural space Subarachnoid space Cerebrospinal fluid Blood-brain barrier Meninges Protective membranes
PNS Cranial nerves Spinal Nerves
Gli-o glue
Myelin/o myelin sheath
Tom/o to cut
-schisis cleft; splitting
-us condition; thing
Polio- grey
Para- abnormal
Cerebell/o cerebellum
Cortic/o cortex; outer covering
Dur/o dura mater
Mening/o meninges; membrane
Radicul/o nerve roots
Thalam/o thalamus
Vertricul/o ventricles
-esthesia sensation
-kinesia; -kinesis movement; motion
-phasia speech
-plegia paralysis
-taxia order; coordination
Pachy- thick
De- lack of; removal
Aging of the nervous system Loss of myelin sheath Impaired coordination Decreased neuroglia leads to loss of neurons Muscle weakness, impaired coordination & reflexes, verbal & learning dysfunction, short-term memory loss Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
Common diseases of the nervous system Brain tumors Gliomas (malignant) Meningiomas (benign) Multiple sclerosis Parkinson’s disease Seizure disorder Epilepsy
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
BBB blood-brain barrier
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome
CT computed tomography
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus
LP lumbar puncture
PET positron emission tomography
PD Parkinson’s disease
Anesthesia Types Local Regional Spinal Epidural IV sedation General
Sx symptoms
Created by: tancrl