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Chapter 02 MedCoding

2018 Medical Coding Training: CPC

PRN Pro Re Nata
Pro re nata when necessary
Superior above
Inferior below
Integumentary System skin, hair, nails
Epidermis the top layer of skin
Dermis the bottom layer of skin
Subcutaneous layer the fatty tissue layer just beneath the skin
Nail root the part of the nail that extends into the skin
Nail bed the area the nail lays on, extending from the lunula to the hyponichium
Nail plate the translucent layer over the top of the nail made up of keratin
Epinichium the cuticle
Perionchium the skin around the nail
Subungual under the nail
Musculoskeletal system made up of bones, muscles, joints, tendons, and ligaments, providing movement, strength, form, protection, and heat
Bone classification 1. Long (tubular) - longer than they are wide 2. Short (cuboidal) - shaped like a cube 3. Sesamoid - shaped like a sesame seed 4. Flat - cross-section is flat 5. Irregular - bones that do not fit in other categories
Cartilage a flexible connective tissue that is non-vascular; a matrix made of chondrocytes, collagen, and cells
Joints (articulating surfaces) synonymous, provide connection between two or more parts of the skeleton
Axial skeleton skull, spine, ribs, sternum, and sacrum
Appendicular skeleton shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, and extremities
Skeletal/Striated muscles move the skeleton, attached by tendons
Cardiac muscle the heart muscle
Smooth muscle found in the walls of hollow organs of the body; examples are the esophagus and bladder
Cardiovascular system made up of the heart and blood vessels
Circulation pulmonary and systemic
The 3 layers of the heart 1. Epicardium - outer lining 2. Endocardium - inner lining 3. Myocardium - main heart muscle
Pericardial sac a fluid-filled sac in which the heart sits
The 3 types of blood vessels 1. Arteries - take blood away from the heart 2. Veins - take blood back to the heart 3. Capillaries - exchange fluids, oxygen, nutrients, and waste between local tissues and the bloodstream
Lymphatic system made up of lymph vessels and nodes; collect excess fluid from interstitial spaces and return it to the heart using a series of valves
Lymphoid organs spleen, thymus, tonsils, and Peyer's patches
Respiratory/Pulmonary system includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli
Esophagus a feeding tube that joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice
Fundus the rounded, upper portion of the stomach
Body (of the stomach) the main portion of the stomach
Pyloric Antrum the lower portion of the stomach
The 3 sections of the small intestine 1. Duodenum - the first 1/3 2. Jejunum - the second 1/3 3. Ileum - the distal 1/3
Large intestine begins just after the ileocecal valve at the cecum, with the appendix attached at the bottom, then the colon, rectum, and anal canal
The 4 portions of the colon 1. Ascending colon - proceeds from the ileocecal valve upwards to the hepatic flexure 2. Transverse colon - the ascending colon turns horizontally and then goes back downwards 3. Descending colon - gives way to the sigmoid colon and ends at the rectum
Urinary system include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and the urethra
External female genetalia vulva, labia majora and minora, clitoris, introitus opening that leads into the vaginal canal, Skene's glands, and Bartholin's glands
Internal female genetalia vagina, uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries
External male genetalia testes, epididymis, scrotum, and penis
Internal male genetalia prostate gland, seminal vesicles, Cowper's glands, Vas Deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
The 3 general functions of the nervous system 1. Sensory 2. Integrative 3. Motor
Nervous system helps us to feel, think, remember, move, and be aware of the world around us; functions as central operator and central intelligence for the body
The 2 groups of the nervous system 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - cranial nerves and spinal nerves
Nervous system's functions regulates body function, provides for an internal method of communication, regulates subconscious body functions, and sends signals when hot, cold, or sharp objects are encountered
The 3 layers of the eye 1. Retina (nervous) 2. Choroid (vascular) 3. Sclera (fibrous)
The 2 segments of the eye, divided by the Crystalline Lens 1. Anterior segment - filled with aqueous humor, responsible for intraocular pressure 2. Posterior segment - filled with vitreous humor, prevents the eyeball from collapsing
Red blood cells, erythrocytes contain hemoglobin that enables the cells to pick up and deliver oxygen to all parts of the body
White cells, leukocytes are the body's primary defense against infection
Platelets, thrombocytes form clusters to plug small holes in blood vessels and assist in the clotting process
The 2 cell types of the immune system (both are lymphocytes) 1. B-cells - created and mature in bone marrow, get activated and produce antibodies that attach to the surface of the infectious agent. 2. T-cells - identify infectious agents and directly attack them.
Other types of white blood cells used by the body for protection neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
Antigens elicit an immune response in the body, and enter the body from the external environment
The 3 types of antigens 1. Inhaled macromolecules 2. Ingested macromolecules 3. Molecules introduced beneath the skin
Created by: SeedyVampire
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