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Chapter 10

Nervous System

TermDefinition
motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
neurons (nerve cells) nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system.
parenchyma Essential in distinguishing tissue of any organ or system.
plexus (plural: plexuses) Large, interlacing network of nerves.
synapse Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or grandular cells. *Greek from synapsis-a point of contact.
acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
astrocyte Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries. (star-like)
cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord. (Latin for "Horse tail")
cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance. * located at the base of the skull.
cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory. *known as the "THINKING AREA"
dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
ganglion (plural: ganglia) Collection of nerves cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
gyrus (plural: gyri) Sheet of nerve cells that produce a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution.
hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
medulla oblongata Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing heart beat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here. L to R, R to L. *Located in the brainstem
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
gli/o glial cells *glioblastoma-highly malignant tumor.
my/o muscle
-plegia -paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body).
-paresis weakness
lex/o word, phrase *dyslexia-This is a developmental reading disorder occurring when the brain does not properly recognize, process, & interpret language.
-lepsy seizure. *narcolepsy- sudden uncontrollable compulsion to sleep.
esthesi/o, -esthesia feeling, nervous sensation. *anesthesia- lack of normal sensation two types (spinal & epidural)
-praxia action. *movement & behavior are not purposeful
-phasia speech
syncop/o to cut off, cut short. *syncopal- pertaining to fainting
cerebral concussion Type of brain injury caused by a blow to the head. Usually no evidence of structural damage to the brain tissue, and loss of consciousness may not occur.
spina bifida congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts. (neutral tube defect) *three forms
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; STROKE (thrombotic,embolic, hemorrhagic)
cerebral contusion Bruising of brain tissue resulting from direct trauma to the head. *associated w/fracture of skull, as well as edema and an increase in intracranial pressure.
embolic an embolus (dislodged thrombus) travels to cerebral arteries and occludes a small vessel. This occurs very suddenly.
thrombotic Blood clot (thrombus) in the arteries leading to the brain, resulting in occlusion (blocking) of the vessel. *Short episodes of neurological dysfunction are known as TRANSIENT ESCHEMIC ATTACKS (TIA's)
dementia mental decline and deterioration
hemorrhagic a blood vessel, such as the cerebral artery, breaks and bleeding occurs. *Aneurysm- weakened area in the vessel wall that balloons and may eventually burst.
palliative relieving symptoms but not curing them.
gait manner of walking
aura peculiar symptoms or sensation occurring before the onset (prodromal) of an attack of a migraine or an epileptic seizure.
caus/o burning. *causalgia-Intense burning following injury to a sensory nerve.
thec/o sheath - (refers to the meninges)
radicul/o nerve root of spinal nerves. *Sciatica is a radiculopathy affecting the sciatic nerve root in the back.
myel/o spinal cord
Parkinson Disease degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement. *caused by a deficiency of dopamine.
Created by: jswitzer13