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Bones and Joints

The Skeleton: Bones and Joints A&P Chapter 7

Skeleton The internal vertebrae structure composed of bone and cartilage and protects and supports the soft organs, tissues, and parts
Long Bone The most familiar shape of bone. The type of bone that makes up almost the entire skeleton of the arms and legs.
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone.
Medullary Cavity Channel at the center of a long bone that contains bone marrow
Epiphysis A part of a bone that is seperated from the shaft by cartilage until growth is complete. End of a long bone
Osseous Tissue Bone Tissue
Compact Bone Hard and dense bone. This tissue makes up the main shaft of a long bone and the outer layer of other bones
Haversian Canal Any of the fine inter-connecting channels that carry the blood and nerve supply in bones. Channel in the center of an osteon (Haversian system), a subunit of compact bone.
Lacunae Spaces in the Haversian Canal
Haversain System Also known as an osteon
Osteon Subunit of compact bone, consisting of concentric rings of bone tissue around a central channel
Perforating Canals Channel across a long bone that contains blood vessels and nerves.
Spongy Bone Another type of bone tissue, found at the end of long bones and center of other bones
Cancellous Bone Another name for spongy bone
Red Marrow Found at the ends of long bones and at the center of other bones. Manufactures red blood cells.
Yellow Marrow Is found chiefly in the central cavities of the long bones. Is composed largely of fat
Periosteum Connective tissue membrane covering a bone
Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells
Endosteum Thin membrane that lines a bone's marrow cavity
Ossification Process of bone formation
Matrix The non-living backgroud in a tissue, the intercellular material
Collagen Flexible white protein that gives strength and resilience to connective tissue, such as bone and cartilage
Osteocytes Mature bone cell; maintains bone but does not produce new bone tissue
Resorption Loss of substance, such as that of bone or tooth
Epiphyseal Plates Secondary bone-forming centers that develop across the ends of bones, around the time of birth
Bone Markings In addition to their shape these are other distinguishing features of bones
Head A rounded, knoblike end seperated from the rest of the bone by a slender region, the neck
Process A large projection of a bone, such as the superior part of the ulna in the forearm that creates the elbow
Condyle A rounded projection
Epicondyle A small projection above a condyle
Crest A distinct border or ridge, often rough, such as over the top of the hip bone
Spine A sharp projection from the surface of the bone
Foramen A hole that allows a vessel or a nerve to pass through or between bones
Sinus An air space found in some skull bones
Fossa A depression on a bone surface
Meatus A short channel or passageway, such as the channel in the temporal bone of the skull that leads to the inner ear
Axial Skeleton The part of the skeleton that includes the skull, spinal column, and sternum and consists of 80 bones
Appendicular Skeleton Part of the skeleton that includes the bones of the upper extremiies, lower extremities, shoulder girdle, and hips, and consists of 126 bones
Extremities Limb; an arm or a leg
Skull Bony framework of the head
Cranium The rounded chamber that encloses the brain and is composed of eight distinct bones
Frontal Bone The bone that forms the forehead, the anterior of the skull's roof, and the roof of the eye orbit (socket)
Socket Also known as the eye orbit
Frontal Sinus The air spaces that communicate with the nasal cavities
Paranasal Sinuses The air spaces that are located near the nose
Parietal The two bones that form most of the top and the side walls of the cranium
Temporal Bone Two bones that form part of the sides and some of the base of the skull
Mastoid Sinuses Air spaces that are contained in the temporal bone; along with the ear canal, the eardrum, and the ears entire middle and internal portions
Mastoid Process Part of the temporal bone that projects downward immediately behind the external part of the ear
Ethmoid Bone A light, fragile bone located between the eyes. It forms a part of the eye orbit's medial wall, a small portion of the cranial floor, and most of the nasal cavity roof.
Nasal Septum A midline partition in the nose
Sphenoid Bone When seen from a superior view resembles a bat with wings extended. It lies at the base of the skull anterior to the temporal bones and forms part of the eye socket
Sella Turcica The saddle-like depression of the sphenoid bone that holds and protects the pituitary gland
Occipital Bone Forms the skull's posterior and part of its base
Foramen Magnum Located at the base of the occipital bone, is a large opening through which the spinal cord communicates with the brain
Suture Type of joint in which bone surfaces are closely united, as in the skull
Coronal Suture Joins the frontal bone with the two parietal bones along the coronal plane
Squamous Suture Joins the temporal bone to the parietal bone on the cranium's lateral surface (named because it is in a flat portion of the skull)
Lambdoid Suture Joins the occipital bone with the parietal bones in the posterior cranium
Sagittal Suture Joins the two parietal bones along the superior midline of the cranium, along the sagittal plane
Mandible Lower jaw bone, is the skull's only movable bone
Maxillae Fuse in the midline to form the upper jaw bone including the anterior part of the hard palate (roof of the mouth)
Palate Roof of the oral cavity,
Hard Palate Anterior portion of the oral cavity
Soft Palate Posterior portion of the oral cavity
Maxillary Sinus Large air space in each maxilla that communicates with the nasal cavity
Zygomatic Bone Two bones,one on each side, form the prominences of the cheeks
Nasal Bone Two bones that lie side by side and form the bridge of the nose
Lacrimal Bone Two bones, each about the size of a fingernail, form the anterior medial wall of each orbital cavity
Vomer Shaped like the blade of a plow, forms the inferior part of the nasal septum
Palatine Bone Paired bones that form the posterior part of the hard palate
Inferior Nasal Conchae Two bones that extend horizontally along the lateral (side) wall of the nasal cavities.
Ossicles One of the three small bones of the middle ear; malleus, incus, and stapes
Hyoid Bone Located just below the madible (jaw bone), a single horseshow, or U-shaped, to which the tongue and other muscles are attached
Fontanels Membranous area in the infant skull where bone has not yet formed; "soft spot"
Vertebral Column Another name for the spine
Thorax Bones of the chest
Vertebrae Bones of the spinal column
Spinal Process Projecting posteriorly (toward the back) from the bony arch that encircles the spinal cord, which can usually be felt just under the skin of the back
Transverse Process Projecting laterally on each side, these processes are attachment points for muscles
Intervertebral Foramina Holes between the vertebrae as they join together through which spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord
Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7) Vertebrae that are located in the neck
Atlas The first cervical vertebrae
Axis The second cervical vertebrae
Dens An upright toothlike part of the axis, that projects into the atlas as a pivot point
Transverse Foramina The hole in the transverse process on each side to accomodate blood vessels and nerves that supply the neck and head, found only in the cervical vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12) Vertebrae that are located in the chest
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5) Vertebrae located in the small of the back
Sacral Verterae Five seperate bones in the child that later fuse into one bone in the adult. Wedged between the two hip bones and completes the posterior part of the bony pelvis
Sacrum Name of the fused bone in the adult that completes the bony pelvis
Coccygeal Vertebrae Consists of four or five tiny bones in the child that later fuse into one bone in the adult
Coccyx Tail bone
Concave Curves away from the viewer
Convex Curves toward the viewer
Ribs One of the slender curved bones that make up most of the thorax
Sternum Breastbone
Manubrium The superior portion of the sternum that is in the broad T-shape that joins laterally on the right and left with the clavicle.
Clavicle Collarbone. Is a slender bone with two shallow curves
Clavicular Notch The point on the manubrium where the clavicle joins
Sternal Angle Where the manubrim joins the body of the sternum, which is long and bladelike, there is a slight elevation which easily can be felt as a surface landmark
Xiphoid Process The inferior end of the sternum consisting of a small tip that is made of cartilage in youth but becomes bone in teh adult. Used as a landmark for CPR
True Ribs The first seven pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum
Costal Cartilage Indiviudal extensions of cartliage that attach the ribs directly to the sternum
False Ribs The remaining 5 pairs of ribs, are attacted to the cartilage of the rib above
Floating Ribs The last two pairs of ribs that have no anterior attachment at all
Intercostal Spaces The spaces between the ribs that contain muscles, blood vessels, and nerves
Scapula Shoulder blade
Spine of the Scapula The posterior raised ridge that can be felt behind the shoulder in the upper portion of the back
Supraspinous Fossa Muscles that move the arm that attach to a depression superior to the scapular spine
Infraspinous Fossa Muscles that move the arm that attach to a depression inferior ot eh scapular spine
Acrominon The process that joins the clavicle. This can be felt as the highest point of the shoulder
Glenoid Cavity Below the acrominon there is a shallow socket, which forms a ball-and-socket joint with the arm bone
Coracoid Process Medial to the glenoid cavity, to which muscles attach
Humerus Arm bone
Trochlea A pulley-shaped mid-portion that forms a joint with the ulna of the forearm
Ulna In the anatomic position, the ulna lies on the medial side fo the forearm in line with the little finger
Radius In the anatomic position, the radius lies laterally above the thumb
Supine Face up or Palm up
Prone Face down or Palm down
Styloid Process Distal projection of the ulna
Olecranon The proximal end of the ulna that forms the point of the elbow
Trochlear Notch Allows a hinge action at the elbow joint
Semilunar Notch The ulnar depression so named because of its deep half-moon shape
Carpal Bones Eight small bones contained in the wrist that are arranged into two rows of four each; Hamate, Pisiform, Triquetral, Lunate, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Capitate, and Scaphoid
Metacarpal Bones Five bones that are the framework for the palm of each hand
Knuckles The rounded distal ends of the metacarpal bones
Phalanges (Upper) 14 finger bones in each hand, two for the thumb and three for each finger
Phalanx Name of each of the bones in the finger
Os Coxae Hip bone that starts out as three bones but later fuses
Ilium Forms the upper flared portion of the pelvis
Iliac Crest The curved rim along the ilium's superior border. It can be felt just below the waist
Anterior Superior Iliac Spine One of two bony projections at either end of the crest, which is often used as a surface landmark in diagnosis and treatment
Ischium The lowest and strongest part of the pelvis
Ischial Spine At the posterior of the pelvic outlet is used as a reference point during childbirth to indicate the progress of the present part down the birth canal
Ischial Tuberosity Located just inferior to the spine,which helps support the trunks weight with a person sits down
Pubis Forms the anterior part of the os coxae
Pubic Symphysis The joint formed by the union of the two hip bones anteriorly. This joint becomes more flexible late in pregnancy to allow for passage of the baby's head during childbirth
Acetabulum Portions of all three pelvic bones contribute to the formation of the deep-socket that holds the head of the femur,to form the hip joint
Obturator Foramen The largest foramina in the entire body are found near the anterior of each hip bone on either side of the pubic symphysis
Pelvis A strong bony girdle completed posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx of the spine
Pelvic Cavity Lower abdomen. Organs include the urinary bladder, the internal reproductive organs, and parts of the intestines
Femur The thigh bone, the longest and strongest bone in the body
Greater Trochanter The large lateral projection near the head of the femur, used as a surface landmark
Lesser Trochanter A smaller elevation is located on the medial side
Linea Aspera The long central ridge, located on the posterior surface, which is a point for attachment of hip muscles
Patella Kneecap
Sesamoid Bone A type of bone that develops within a tendon or a joint capusle
Tibia The shin bone, located medially on the great toe side, is the larger weight-bearing bone
Fibula The small of the leg bones located laterally to the tibia does not reach the knee joint
Medial Malleolus A downward projection of the tibia's distal end; it forms the prominence on the inner aspect of the ankle
Lateral Malleolus Located at the fibula's distal end; forms the prominence on the outer aspect of the ankle
Tarsal Bone Foot bones; seven in number: cuboid, cuniform (3), talus, calcaneus, and navicular
Calcaneus The largest of the tarsal bones, also called the heel bone
Metatarsal Bones The five bones that form the framework of the instep and the heads of these bones form the ball of the foot
Phalanges (Lower) 14 toe bones; there are two in the great toe, and three in each toe,
Osteoporosis A disorder of bone formation in which there is a lack of normal calcium salt deposits and a decrease in bone protein
Osteopenia Reduction in bone density to below average levels
Osteitis Deformans (Paget Disease) The bones undergo peroids of calcium loss followed by peroids of excessive deposition of calcium salts, as a result the bones become deformed.
Osteomalacia Bone tissue softens due to lack of calcium salt formation.
Rickets Osteomalacia in children. Causes the skeleton to remain soft and become distorted
Tumors Neoplasms that develop in bone tissue may be either benign or malignant
Osteosarcoma Malignant bone tumors that most commonly occurs in a young person in a bone's growing regoin, especially around the knee
Chondrosarcoma Malignant bone tumor that arises in cartilage and usually appears in midlife
Osteomyelitis An inflammation of bone caused by pyogenic bacteria
Pyogenic Pus-producing
Tuberculosis This disease may spread to bones, especially the long bones of the extremities and the wrist, and ankle bones
Pott Disease Tuberculosis of the spine.
Curvatures of the Spine Abnormalities of the spinal curves
Kyphosis An exaggeration of the thoracic curve, commonly referred to as "hunchback"
Lordosis An excessive lumbar curve, commonly knonw as "swayback"
Scoliosis A lateral curvature of the vertebral column, occurs in the rapid growth period of the teens more often in girls that in boys
Cleft Plate A congenital deformity in where there is an opening in the roof of the mouth owing to a faulty union of the maxiallary bones
Flat Foot A common disorder in which the tendons and ligaments that support's the foots long arch are weakened and the curve of the arch flattens
Fracture A break in a bone, usually caused by trauma
Closed Fracture A simple bone fracture with no open wound
Open Fracture A broken bone protrudes through the skin or an external wound leads to a broken bone
Greenstick Fracture One side of the bone is broken and the other is bent. These are most common in children
Impacted Fracture The broken ends of the bone are jammed into each other
Comminuted Fracture There is more than one fracture line and the bone is splintered or crushed
Spiral Fracture The bone has been twisted apart. These are relatively common in skiing accidents
Transverse Fracture The fracture goes straight across the bone
Oblique Fracture The break occurs at an angle across the bone
Articulation Another name for a joint
Joint An area of junction or union between two or more bones
Fibrous Joint The bones in this type of joint are held together by fibrous connective tissue.
Synarthrosis This type of joint is immovable
Cartilaginous Joint The bones in this type of joint are connected by cartilage
Amphiarthrosis This type of joint is slightly movable
Snyovial Joint The bones in this type of joint have a potential space, which contains a small amout of thick colorless fluid
Joint Cavity The potential space between two bones in a synovial joint
Synovial Fluid The lubricant in a synovial joint that is a thick colorless fluid
Diarthrosis This type of joint is freely movable
Ligaments Bands of fibrous connective tissue
Joint Capsule Connective tissue that encloses each joint and is continuous with the periosteum of the bones
Articular Cartilage The bone surfaces in freely movable joints are protected by a smooth layer of Hyaline cartilage
Meniscus Cartilage found in complex joints between bones that act as cushions
Bursae Small sacs near joints that are filled with synovial fluid
Bursitis Inflammation of a bursa, as a result of injury or irratation
Flexion A bending motion that decreases the angle between bones, as in bending the fingers to close the hand
Extension A straightening motion that increases the angle between bones as in straightening the fingers to open the hand
Abduction Movement away from the midline of the body, as in moving the arm straight out to the side
Adduction Movement toward the midline of the body, as in bringing the arm back to its original position beside the body
Circumduction A combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction enables one to execute this movement
Rotation Refers to a twisting of turning of a bone on its own axis, as in turning the head from side to side to say "no"
Supination The act of turning the palm up or forward
Pronation Turns the palm down or backward
Inversion The act of turning the sole inward so it faces the other foot
Eversion Turns the sole outward, away from the body
Dorsiflexion The foot is bent upward at the ankle, narrowing the angle between the leg and the top of the foot
Plantar Flexion The toes point downward, as in toe dancing, flexing the arch of the foot
Dislocation A derangement of the joint parts
Sprain The wrenching of a joint with rupture or tearing of the ligaments
Herniated Disk The central mass, or nucleus pulposus, protrudes through a weakened outer cartilaginous ring into the spinal cord
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint
Osteoarthritis Also known as degenerative joint disease, occurs mostly in joints used in weight bearing, such as the hips, knees, and spinal column
Rheumatoid Arthritis A crippling condition characterized by joint swelling in the hand and feet and elsewhere as a result of inflammation and overgrowth of the synovial membranes and other joint tissues
Septic (Infectious) Arthritis Arises when bacteria spread to involve joint tissues, usually by way of the bloodstream
Gout A kind of arthritis caused by a meatabolic disturbance. The joint becomes inflamed and extremly painful as a result of uric acid buildup and crystallization
Arthroscope A type of endoscope used to visually examine the joints and can also be used in the repair of joints as well
Arthrocentesis Draining of abnormal amounts of fluid in a joint cavity by this tapping procedure
Arthroplasty Surgical repair of a joint
Gliding Joint Bone surfaces slide over one another. Examples joints in wrist and ankle
Hinge Joint Allows movement in one direction, changing the angle of the bones at the joint. Examples elbow joint, joints between the phalanges of fingers and toes
Pivot Joint Allows rotation around the length of the bone Examples joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae, joint at the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
Condyloid Joint Allows movement in two directions Example joint between the metacarpal and the first phalanx of the finger
Saddle Joint Like a condyloid Joint, but with deeper articulating surfaces. Example joint between the wrist and the metacarpal bone of the thumb
Ball-and-Socket Joint Allows movement in many directions around a central point. gives the greatest freedom of movement. Example shoulder joint and hip joint
How many cranial bones are there? Eight
How many facial bones are there? Fourteen
How many hyoid bones are there? One
How many ear bones are there? Six
How many vertebral bones are there? Twenty-six
How many bones are in the sternum? One
How many rib bones are there? twenty-four
How many clavicle bones are there? Two
How many scapula bones are there? Two
How many humerus bones are there? two
How many ulna bones are there? Two
How many radius bones are there? Two
How many carpal bones are there? sixteen
How many metacarpal bones are there ten
How many Upper Phalanges are there? Twenty-eight
How many os coxae bones are there? Two
How many femur bones are there? Two
How many patella bones are there? Two
How many tibia bones are there? Two
How many fibula bones are there? Two
How many tarsal bones are there? Fourteen
How many metatarsal bones are there? Ten
How many Lower Phalanges are there? Twenty-eight
What is the name of the first set of vertebrae? Cervical Vertebrae
What is the name of the second set of vertebrae? Thoracic Vertebrae
What is the name of the third set of vertebrae? Lumbar Vertebrae
What is the name of the fourth set of vertebrae? Sacral Vertebrae
What is the name of the last set of vertebrae? Coccygeal Vertebrae
How many cervical vertebrae are there? Seven
How many thoracic vertebrae are there? Twelve
How many lumbar vertebrae are there Five
How many sacral vertebrae in children are there? Five
How many sacral vertebrae in adults are there? One
How many coccygeal vertebrae are there in children? Five
How many coccygeal vertebrae are there in adults One
How many pairs of true ribs are there? Seven
How many pairs of false ribs are there? Five
What is the name of the last two pairs of ribs? Floating ribs
What do the intercostal spaces contain? muscles, blood vessels, and nerves
How many bones are in the axial skeleton? eighty
How may bones are in the appendicular skeleton? one-hundred and twenty-six
What joins the frontal bone with the two parietal bones along the coronal plane? coronal suture
What joins the temporal bone to the parietal bone on the cranium's lateral surface? Squamous Suture
What joins the occipital bone with the parietal bones in the posterior cranium lambdoid suture
What joins the two parietal bones along the superior midline of the cranium along the sagittal plane Sagittal suture
Created by: Okiegirl