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MedTerm 7

Respiratory System

carbon dioxide Tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during metabolism
cartilage Tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone
cilia Minute, hairlike structures that extend from the surface of a cell
diffuse move or spread out at random
oxygen tasteless, odorless gas essential for respiration
pH degree of acidity or alkalinity
serous membrane Thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa
nas/o, rhin/o nose
sept/o septum
sinus/o sinus cavity
pharyng/o pharynx
adenoid/o adenoids
tonsill/o tonsils
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx
trache/o trachea
bronchi/o, bronch/o bronchus
bronchiol/o bronchiole
alveol/o alveolus
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumon/o air, lung
pulmon/o lung
anthrac/o coal, coal dust
atel/o incomplete, imperfect
coni/o dust
cyan/o blue
lob/o lobe
orth/o straight
ox/o oxygen
pector/o, steth/o, thorac/o chest
phren/o diaphragm, mind
spir/o breathe
-capnia CO2
-osmia smell
-phonia voice
-pnea breathing
-ptysis spitting
-thorax chest
abnormal breath sounds Abnormal sounds or noises heard over the lungs and airways, commonly leading to a diagnosis of a respiratory or cardiac condition
crackle Intermittent sounds caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli
rhoncus snoring
stridor high pitched sound caused by spasms of the larynx or an obstruction of the upper airway
wheeze whistling or sighing that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory tract
acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids
anosmia lack of smell
apnea breathing stops repeatedly during sleep
central sleep apnea brain fails to stimulate breathing muscles
obstructive sleep apnea SA caused by blockage in the upper airway
atelectasis collapsed lung
coryza acute inflammation of the nose
croup Common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchial passages and sometimes involving the lungs
cystic fibrosis Life-threatening genetic disease causing mucus to become unusually thick and sticky, plugging tubes and ducts, especially in the lungs and pancreas
deviated nasal septum displacement of the cartilage dividing the nostrils
epiglottitis infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures
epistaxis nosebleed
hypoxemia oxygen deficiency in the blood
hypoxia oxygen deficiency in the body
influenza Acute, contagious viral disorder of the respiratory tract, characterized by weakness, fever, chills, and muscle pain, especially in the back, arms, and legs
pertussis whooping cough
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity
pleurisy inflammation of the pleural membrane
pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in the alveoli
pulmonary embolism blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass that has traveled to the lungs from another part of the body, typically a clot
SIDS Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than age 12 months
TB fatal contagious disease spread through respiratory droplets, affecting any organ of the body but primarily the lungs and causing chest pain, hemoptysis, weight loss, fatigue, and night sweats
Mantoux test TB skin test
oximetry pulse oximetry
polysomnography sleep study
PFTs series of tests that aid in diagnosis of lung diseases and evaluate effectiveness of treatments
arterial blood gas measures oxygen and CO2 levels in arterial blood
sputum culture identifies organisms in the lower respiratory tract
throat culture identifies pathogens such as strep
pleurectomy excision of part of the pleura
pneumonectomy excision of a lung or portion of the lung
septoplasty surgical repair of a deviated septum
thoracentesis surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity
tracheostomy opening made into the neck and trachea to insert a breathing tube
aerosol therapy aerosol therapy
antral lavage Washing or irrigating of the paranasal sinuses to remove mucopurulent material in an immunosuppressed patient or one with known sinusitis that has failed to respond to medical management
endotracheal intubation Procedure in which a plastic tube is inserted into the trachea to maintain an open airway
postural drainage Method of positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs to make breathing easier
antibiotics inhibit growth of bacteria
antihistamines block histamines from binding with receptor sites in tissues
antitussives blocks the cough reflex
bronchodilators relax bronchial muscles to increase airflow
corticosteroids block production of substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory response
decongestants Constrict blood vessels of nasal passages and limit blood flow, which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air can pass more freely through the passageways
expectorants Liquefy respiratory secretions so that they are more easily dislodged during coughing episodes
Created by: aleelyse