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MedTerm 6

Digestive System

TermDefinition
bilirubin orange-yellow pigment formed during destruction of erythrocytes that is taken up by liver cells and eventually excreted in the feces
bolus mass of masticated food ready for swallowing
exocrine gland that secretes products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ, tissue, or into a vessel
sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
triglycerides organic compound that is made of one glycerol and three fatty acids
or/o, stomat/o mouth
gloss/o, lingu/o tongue
bucc/o cheek
cheil/o, labi/o lip
dent/o, odont/o teeth
gingiv/o gums
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
esophag/o esophagus
pharyng/o throat
gastr/o stomach
pylor/o pylorus
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestine
jejun/o jejunum
ile/o ileum
append/o, appendic/o appendix
col/o, colon/o colon
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
rect/o rectum
proct/o anus, rectum
an/o anus
hepat/o liver
pancreat/o pancreas
cholangi/o bile vessel
chol/e bile, gall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o bile duct
-emesis vomit
-iasis abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-megaly enlargement
-orexia appetite
-pepsia digestion
-phagia swallowing, eating
-prandial meal
-rrhea discharge, flow
anorexia lack or loss of appetite
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cachexia physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass
cholelithiasis gallstones
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
crohn's disease form of inflammatory bowel disease usually in the ileum
dysentery inflammation of the intestine that is caused by ingesting contaminated food or water
flatus gas in the GI tract
GERD backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus
halitosis foul smelling breath
hematemesis vomiting blood
hemorrhoids swollen varicose veins in the anorectal region
intestinal obstruction blockage or the intestines that occurs when the contents of the intestine cannot move forward because of a blockage of the bowel
IBS symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function for which no cause can be determined
malabsorption syndrome impaired passage of nutrients through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena tarlike feces containing digested blood
obesity 20% or more above ideal weight
morbid BMI greater than 40, 100 lb over ideal weight
obstipation severe constipation
oral leukoplakia white spots on the tongue, lips, or cheek
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric sphincter causing a blockage between the stomach and small intestine
regurgitation backward flow
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammatory disease of the colon
gastrointestinal endoscopy Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a flexible fiberoptic instrument with a magnifying lens and a light source (endoscope) to identify abnormalities, including bleeding, ulcerations, and tumors
hepatitis panel Panel of blood tests that identifies the specific virus—hepatitis A hepatitis B, or hepatitis C that is causing hepatitis
liver function tests (LFTs) blood tests that evaluate liver function
serum bilirubin measures the amount of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture identifies microorganisms or parasites present in feces
stool guaiac detects occult blood in the feces
antacids neutralize acidity
antidiarrheals releive diarrhea
antiemetics control nausea and vomiting
antispasmodics decrease GI spasms
H2 Blockers inhibit secretion of stomach acid
laxatives treat constipation
proton pump inhibitors suppress acid production
Created by: aleelyse