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MedTerm 10

Musculoskeletal System

leiomy/o smooth (Visceral) muscle
muscul/o, my/o muscle
rhabd/o rod-shaped (striated)
rhabdomy/o striated muscle
brachi/o arm
carp/o carpus
cephal/o head
cervic/o neck
clavicul/o clavicle
cost/o ribs
crani/o cranium
dactyl/o fingers, toes
humer/o humerus
metacarp/o metacarpus
phalang/o phalanges
radi/o radius
spondyl/o, vertebr/o vertebrae
stern/o sternum
thorac/o chest
calcane/o calcaneum
femor/o femur
fibul/o fibula
ili/o ilium
ischi/o ischium
lumb/o loins (lower back)
metatars/o metatarsus
patell/o patella
pelv/i, pelv/o pelvis
pod/o food
pub/o pubis
tibi/o tibia
ankyl/o stiffness, bent, crooked
arthr/o joint
chondr/o cartilage
fasci/o fascia
fibr/o fiber, fibrous tissue
kyph/o humpback
lamin/o lamina (vertebral disk)
lord/o curve, swayback
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
ped/o, ped/i foot, child
scoli/o crooked, bent
synov/o synovial membrane or fluid
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendon
-asthenia weakness, debility
-clasia to break, surgical fracture
-desis binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
-malacia softening
-porosis porous
-sarcoma malignant tumor of connective tissue
a- without, not
dys- bad, painful, difficult
syn- union, together, joined
bunion deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally toward the other toes
carpal tunnel syndrome compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
claudication lameness, limping
contracture fibrosis of connective tissue that prevents normal mobility of the joint
crepitation dry, grating sound caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
ganglion cyst fluid filled tumor that develops along the joint or tendons of the wrists, hands, or feet
gout joint inflammation caused by accumulation of uric acid crystal
herniated disk rupture of a vertebral disk's center through its outer edge
hypotonia loss of muscle tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
myasthenia gravis progressive disorder characterized by muscle weakness and droopiness, especially in the eyes, face, throat, and limbs
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
osteoporosis loss of calcium and bone tissue, causing the bones to become porous, brittle, and easily fractured
Paget disease chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening
phantom limb perceived sensation of a limb that has been amputated
rickets form of osteomalacia in children caused by Vitamin D deficiency
spinal curatures persistent, abnormal curvature of the spine
scoliosis lateral curvature
kyphosis curvature of the upper spine (Hunchback)
lordosis inward curvature of the lower spine (swayback)
spondylolisthesis slipping of a vertebra from it's normal position
spondylosis degeneration of the vertebrae
sprain and strain overstretching of ligaments, muscle, or tendon
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation of one or more vertebrae
talipes equinovarus clubfoot
arthrography series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast into the joint to outline the contour of the joint
bone density test low energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density
discography radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of contrast
lumbosacral spinal radiography radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae
myelography radiography of the spinal cord after injection of contrast
bone scintigraphy nuclear medicine procedure that involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide taken up into the bone
amputation partial or complete removal of an extremity
arthroscopy visual examination of the interior of a joint
arthrocentesis puncture of a joint to remove fluid or administer medication
arthroclasia surgical breaking of a joint to provide movement
bone grafting transplantation of bone tissue to replace missing or damaged tissue
bursectomy excision of a bursa in the connective tissue
laminectomy excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
sequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum (necrosed bone)
total hip replacement replacement of a damaged hip joint
bone immobilization procedure used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture, and facilitate the healing process
casting immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing
spinting immobilization by application of an orthopedic device
traction set of mechanisms for straightening broken pones or relieving pressure on the spine and skeletal system
bone resorption inhibitors prevent bone loss and strengthen bones affected by osteoporosis
calcium supplements treat hypocalcemia
disease modifying antirheumatic drugs slow progression of joint destruction by inhibiting inflammation
muscle relaxants relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs suppress inflammation
salicylates relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
vitamin d analogs facilitate the utilization of calcium
Created by: aleelyse