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Nervous System

MBC 100 The Language of Medicine, Ch. 10 Med Term

acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
afferent nerves Carry nervous impulses toward the brain and spinal cord; sensory nerves.
akinetic Pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement.
analgesia Absence of sensitivity to pain.
anencephaly Congenital condition of partial or complete absence of brain matter.
anesthesia Absence of nervous feeling or sensation. (numb)
aphasia Inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex.
apraxia Inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects.
arachnoid membrane Middle layer of meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
astrocyte Glial (neuroglial) cell that transports salts and water from capillaries.
ataxia Without coordination.
autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
axon Microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
blood-brain barrier Blood vessels that let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
bradykinesia Slow movement.
brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
causalgia Intense burning pain, often resulting from injury to a peripheral nerve.
cell body Part of the nerve cell (neuron) that contains the nucleus.
central nervous system Brain and spinal cord.
cephalgia Head pain; headache.
cerebellar Pertaining to the cerebellum.
cerbellopontine Pertaining to the cerebellum and pons.
cerebellum Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum.
cerebrospinal fluid Clear, watery fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory, among other functions.
coma State of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused.
comatose Pertaining to a coma.
cranial nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain.
dendrite Microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse.
dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
dyslexia Difficulty in reading, writing, and learning.
dyskinesia Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements.
efferent nerves Carry messages away from the brain and the spinal cord; motor nerves.
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
encephalopathy Disease of the brain.
ependymal cell A glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form the cerebrospinal fluid.
epidural hematoma Collection of blood located above the dura mater.
ganglion Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system; plural is ganglia.
glial cell Nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function.
glioblastoma Rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain.
gyrus;gyri Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum.
hemiparesis Slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body.
hemiplegia Paralysis of the right or left half of the body.
hypalgesia Diminished sensitivity to pain.
hyperesthesia Excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain.
hyperkinesis Excessive movement.
hypothalamus Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
intrathecal Pertaining to within the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
leptomeningitis Inflammation of the two thinner membranes (arachnoid and pia mater) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
medulla oblongata Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.
meningeal Pertaining to the meninges.
meninges Three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
meningioma Tumor (benign) of the meninges.
microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
midbrain The uppermost portion of the brainstem.
motor nerves Carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles.
myelin sheath Fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell.
myelomeningocele Congenital hernia (protrusion) of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect (gap) in the vertebral column. This defect is often associated with spina bifida.
myelopathy Disease of the spinal cord.
myoneural Pertaining to muscle and nerve.
narcolepsy Sudden seizures of sleep.
nerve Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses.
neuralgia Nerve pain.
neurasthenia Lack of strength in nerves; a feeling of weakness and exhaustion.
neuroglial cells Supporting cells (stroma) of the nervous system.
neuron Nerve cell.
neuropathy Disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system.
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell.
oligodendroglial cell Glial (neuroglial) cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron.
paraplegia Paralysis of the lower part of the body and both legs.
parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions, such as heart rate, breathing, and the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
paranchyma Essential, functioning cells of any organ. Neurons (nerve cells) are this part of the nervous system.
peresis Slight paralysis.
paresthesia Abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause.
peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
pia mater Thin, delicate, and innermost membrane of the meninges.
plexus Network of nerves outside of the central nervous system; brachial, cervical, and lumbosacral are examples.
poliomyelitis Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
polyneuritis Inflammation of many nerves.
pons Part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain. It connects the upper and lower portions of the brain.
quadriplegia Paralysis of all four limbs; both arms and both legs.
radiculitis Inflammation of a spinal nerve root.
receptor Organ that receives nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves that carry the stimulation to the brain and spinal cord; skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds.
sciatic nerve Extends from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot.
sciatica Painful inflammation along the course of the sciatic nerve.
sensory nerves Carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves.
spinal nerves Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each one affects a particular are of the skin.
stimulus Agent of change (light, sound, and touch) that evokes a response.
stroma Connective and supportive tissue of an organ.
subdural hematoma Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater surrounding the brain.
sulcus; sulci Depression or groove in the surface of the cerbral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that activate responses in times of stress; heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure are affected.
synapse Space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscle and glandular cells.
syncopal Pertaining to syncope (fainting).
syncope Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness.
thalamic Pertaining to the thalamus.
trigeminal neuralgia Flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve). This nerve branches to the eye, upper jaw and lower jaw.
vagal Pertaining to the vagus nerve.
vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve with branches to the chest and abdominal organs.
ventricles of the brain Fluid (cerbrospinal fluid) filled canals in the brain.
Created by: Momster
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