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Ch 22 Immune System

A&P Ch 22 Immune System

What is the function of the immune system? Provide immunity --> protect us from infection and harmful substances
What is the immune system function dependent on? specific type of infectious agent
What can infectious agents do? Damage or kill a host
What do pathogenic agents do? Cause harm
What are the 5 major categories of infectious agents? Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, and multicellular parasites
What are bacteria? Single-celled prokaryotes. Most of them are harmless, some are virulent (cause serious illness)
What are some examples of virulent (cause serious illness) bacteria? Clostridium tetani (tetanus) and streptococcal bacteria (strep throat)
What are viruses? Pieces of DNA or RNA in a protein shell
What are some examples of Viruses? Common cold, ebola, and chickenpox
What are fungi? Eukaryotic cells with membrane and cell wall
What do fungi include? Include molds, yeasts, multicellular fungi that produce spores
What can fungi cause? Superficial diseases in the integument (e.g. ringworm)
What do gunfi infect? Infect the mucosal linings (e.g. vaginal yeast infections)
What are Protozoans? Eukaryotic cells without a cell wall
What do protozoans include? Intracellular and extracellular parasites
What are some examples of Protozoans? Malaria and trichomoniasis
What is an example of a multicellular parasite? Tapeworm?
What are prions? Neither cells nor viruses, but rather fragments of infectious proteins
Where are Leukocytes formed? In the red bone marrow
What do granulocytes include? Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
What do monocytes become? Macrophages
What do lymphocytes include? B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, NK (natural killer) cells
Where are most leukocytes found? In body tissues (instead of blood)
What are lymphatic tissue? Secondary structures
What house macrophages? Select organs
What houses dendritic cells? Epithelial layers of skin and mucosal membranes
What houses mast cells? Connective tissue
Where are mast cells abundant? In dermis and mucosa of respiratory, GI, and urogenital tracts
What are cytokines? small proteins that regulate immune activity
What produces Cytokines? Cells of both innate and adaptive immune system
What are some effects of cytokines? Signaling cells, controlling development and behavior of immune cells, regulating inflammatory response, destroying cells
Chemical messenger released from one cell that bind to receptors of target cells --> what is autocrine? It can act on cell that released it
Chemical messenger released from one cell that bind to receptors of target cells --> what is paracrine? It acts on local cells
Chemical messenger released from one cell that bind to receptors of target cells --> >what is endocrine? It acts on distant cells after circulating through the blood
What are some cytokine categories? Interleukin (IL), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Colony-stimulating factor (CSF), Interferon (IFN)
How do innate immunity and adaptive immunity differ? Based on cells involved, specirficity of cell response, mechanisms of eliminating harmful substances, amount of time for response
Although innate and adaptive immunities are distinct, they work together in _______. Body defense
What is innate immunity? Immunity present at birth that protects against variety of different substances (non-specific), no prior exposure to substance necessary
What does innate immunity include? Barriers of skin and mucosal membranes, nonspecific cellular and molecular internal defenses
How does innate immunity response? Immediately to potentially harmful agents
What is adaptive immunity? Acquired immunity
How does adaptive immunity respond? Takes several days to be effects
What does adaptive immunity respond to? Response to antigen involves specific T- and B-lymphocytes; a particular cell responds to one foreign substance but not another
What are some characteristics of innate immunity? Prevents entry of potentially harmful substances, responds nonspecifically to a range of harmful substances, first line of defense is skin and mucosal membrane, and second line of defense involves internal processes
What happens in the second line of defense in innate immunity? Physiological processes such as inflammation and fever ; activities of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils, and NK cells
Describe the skin as a barrier It is a physical barrier of epidermis and dermis; skin releases antimicrobial substances and has normal nonpathogenic flora (microorganisms)
What lines the body openings? Mucosal membranes that are lined by harmless bacteria that suppress growth of more virulent types
What do neutrophils and macrophages destroy? Engulfed particles
What do dendritic cells destroy? Particles and the present fragments
What are present on dendritic cell surface to T-lymphocytes? Antigens
Basophils and mast cells promote inflammation. They release granules containing chemicals. The chemicals increase movement of fluid from blood to injured tissue and attract immune cells (chemotactic).
What does histamine do? Increase vasodilation and capillary permeability
What does heparin do? Act as an anticoagulant
Where does mast cells reside in? Connective tissue, mucosa, internal organs
What do Natural Killer (NK) cells do? destroy a variety of unwanted cells, They form in bone marrow, circulate in blood, and accumulate in secondary lymphatic structures
What cell performs immune surveillance (patrol the body detecting unhealthy cells)? NK cells
What cells do NK cells destroy? Virus-infected cells, bacteria-infected cells, tumor cells, cells of transplanted tissue
How do NK cells destroy unwanted cells? They release cytotoxic chemicals
What do eosinophils attack? Multicellular parasites
How do eosinophils kill parasites? They degranulate, release enzymes and other toxic substances
What kind of responses to eosinophils participate in? Immune responses of allergy and asthma
How can cells of innate immune system recognize microbes as foreign? Because of receptors
What are antimicrobial proteins? Molecules that function against microbes
What are interferons? A class of cytokines that non-specifically impede viral spread
What produces IFN-a and IFN-b ? Leukocytes and virus-infected cells
What do IFN-a and IFN-b do? Bind to neighboring cells and prevent their infection ; stimulate NK cells to destroy virus-infected cells
What is inflammation? An immediate response to ward of unwanted substances. A local, nonspecific response to vascularized tissue to injury.
What type of immunity is inflammation a part of? Innate immunity
Describe the initiation of inflammation. Injured tissue, basophils, mast cells, and infectious organisms release chemicals that initiate response. The chemicals include histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and chemotactic factors
What do released chemicals cause in the event of inflammation? Vascular changes - vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, increased endothelial expression of molecules for leukocyte adhesion (cell-adhesion molecules, CAMS).
What happens within 72 hours of the inflammatory response? it slows - monocytes exit blood becoming macrophages that eat bacteria, damaged host cells, dying neutrophils; tissue repair begins as fibroblasts form new CT
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation? Redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function
What is the duration of acute inflammation? 8 - 10 days
What is another name for fever? Pyrexia
What is fever (pyrexia)? abnormal body temperature elevation as result from release of pyrogens from immune cells or infectious agents?
During a fever, what does the pyrogens and hypothalamus do? Pyrogens circulate through blood and target hypothalamus. Hypothalamus releases prostaglandin E2 and raises temp leading to fever?
What are the fever stages? Onset, stadium, and defervescence
What happens in the onset stage of fever? Temperature begins to rise - hypothalamus stimulates dermis blood vessels to constrict (less heat loss) and shivering generates heat (may be in response to chills)
What happens in the stadium stage of fever? Elevated temperature is maintained - metabolic rate increases to promote elimination of harmful substance; liver and spleen bind zinc and iron slowing microbial reproduction
What happens in the defervescence stage of fever? Temp returns to normal - hypothalamus no longer stimulated by pyrogens, prostaglandin release decrease, hypothalamus stimulates mechanisms to release heat (vasodilation, sweating)
What are the benefits of fever? Inhibit reproduction of bacteria and viruses, promotes interferon activity, increases activity of adaptive immunity, accelerates tissue repair, increases CAMs on endothelium of capillaries in lymph nodes, recommended to leave low fever untreated
What are the risks to a high fever? Changes in metabolic pathways and denaturation of protein pose risks, possible seizures, irreversible brain damage at greater than 106°F , death likely if temperature greater than 109°F
What is considered a high fever? 103°F in children and slightly lower in adults
What does pus (exudate) contain? Destroyed pathogens, dead leukocytes, macrophages, cellular debris
How is pus removed? By lymphatic system or through skin
What happens if pus is not removed? It forms an abscess
What is an abscess? Pus walled off with collagen fibers that requires surgical intervention to remove
Why is ice recommended for acute inflammation? Causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels (decreases inflammatory response), numbs the area, less painful
What is chronic inflammation? Inflammation continuing for longer than 2 weeks
What is chronic inflammation characterized by? Macrophages and lymphocytes (not neutrophils)
What can cause chronic inflammation? Overuse injuries, acute inflammation unable to eliminate pathogen, autoimmune disorder
What can chronic inflammation lead to? Tissue destruction and scar tissue formation
Created by: elizabethcosio



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