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Anatomy Final

QuestionAnswer
what are the major chemical categories for neurotransmitters? Amino Acids, Amines & Monoamines, Neuropeptides *Remember GABA
Differentiate the functions of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division of the ANS. Sympathetic (arouses the body for action, inhibits digestion) Parasympathetic (calms the body, stimulates digestion)
How do the nervous system and endocrine system work alike? How are they different? They both work in communication and regulation. nervous system works faster, and can designate specific areas it controls. Endocrine system works very slowly, and extends to multiple places.
Whats the difference between en endocrine gland and an exocrine gland? Endocrine(ductless / secretes hormones) Exocrine (has ducts / secretes its product into organs and other body surfaces
What is a hormone? a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland, travels in the bloodstream, and triggers physiological responses in the body
Potential Bonus *** Name 3 organs that are both endocrine and exocrine 1) Pancreas (Endo: Insulin and Glucagon / Exo: Digestive Enzymes ) 2) Ovaries (Endo: Estrogen / Exo : Eggs) 3) Testes (Endo: Testosterone / Exo: Sperm)
Describe the structure and function of a chemical synapse. The axon terminal has synaptic vessels ready to release neurotransmitters . / The function of a chemical synapse is to cause a specific response in a target cell
What does afferent mean? carrying blood towards a tissue or a nerve fiber that conducts signals towards CNS
What does efferent mean? Carrying blood away from a tissue or nerve fiber that conducts signals away from the CNS.
what is an interneuron? a neuron that is contained entirely in the CNS and its signal conduction path lies between an afferent and efferent pathway.
What is a synapse? junction at end of an axon where it stimulates another cell (neuron + target cell)
What is a ganglion? a collection of neural cell bodies
What is a neurotransmitter? chemical released at distal end of axon that stimulates adjacent cell in nervous system
What is depolarization? shift in voltage to a less negative value
What is repolarization? goes back towards negative resting potential
What is hyperpolarization? more negative than the rest
Why is an action potential an all or none event? There must be a threshold met in order for a spike to occur
Describe the structure of the spinal cord? a cylinder of nervous tissue that starts from the foramen magnum of the skull, passes through the vertebral canal and ends slightly beyond Lumbar 1.
Describe the structure of a spinal nerve? a bundle of axons surrounded by connective tissue layers
Name and describe the 3 layers of meninges Dura Mater (tough membranous sleeve around spinal cord) Arachnoid Mater (layers or squamous and cuboidal cells stuck inside the dura) Pia Mater (transparent membrane that follows contours of the spinal cord
What are the 4 major parts of the brain? Cerebrum / Diencephalon / Brain Stem / Cerebellum
What is a function of the Frontal lobe of the brain? mood, decision making, speech control
What is a function of theTemporal Lobe? hearing, smell, memory consolidation
What is a function of the Parietal Lobe? taste, somatic sensation
What is a function of the Occipital Lobe? visual , awareness and processing
What is a function of the Insula? pain, consciousness
Potential Bonus *** If Na+ enters the cell and K+ leaves the cell, what is its active and passive transport? P: sodium higher outside cell / potassium high inside the cell A: sodium potassium pump brings things back to rest
What is a neuron?
What is neuroglia? knotlike swelling in a nerve where the cell bodies of peripheral neurons are concentrated
Created by: jennahamilton