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Ch 23 Respiratory

A&P Ch 23 Respiratory

What are the structures involved in gas exchange? Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
What do the conducting pathways include? the structures of larynx to terminal bronchioles
What is known as the voice box? Larynx
What are the several functions of the larynx? air passageway ; prevents ingested materials from entering respiratory tract; produces sound for speech; assists in increasing pressure in abdominal cavity; participates in sneeze and cough reflexes
What structure covers the superior opening during swallowing to prevent ingested materials from entering the respiratory tract? Epiglottis
How the larynx produce sound for speech? Vocal cords (ligaments) vibrate during expiration
What is the valsalva maneuver? The simultaneous closure of laryngeal opening )by the epiglottis) and contraction of abdominal muscles
increased pressure in the abdominal cavity due to the larynx also facilitates what? urination, defecation, childbirth
What is another name for the laryngeal prominence? Adam's apple
What is the laryngeal prominence made of? Thyroid cartilage
Brief description of cricoid cartilage. ring-shaped cartilage inferior to thyroid cartilage
Brief epiglottis. projects preposterously into pharynx and closes over laryngeal inlet during swallowing
All laryngeal cartilages, except the epiglottis, is made of what? Hyaline cartilage
The epiglottis is made of what? Elastic cartilage
What ligament is covered with mucosa to form the vocal folds? Vocal ligaments
What ligament is covered with mucosa to form the vestibular folds? Vestibular ligaments
What fold makes up the TRUE vocal cords? The vocal folds of the vocal ligaments
What folds makes up the FALSE vocal cords? The vestibular folds of the vestibular ligaments
What is the rima glottidis? The opening between ligaments
What is the glottis made up of? Rima glottidis + vocal folods
What do the vestibular ligaments do? Protect vocal cords
What is laryngitis? Inflammation of the larynx
What are the symptoms of laryngitis? Hoarse voice, sore throat, sometimes fever
What is laryngitis caused by? Bacterial or viral infection, or overuse (yelling)
Severe cases of laryngitis do what? Extend to the epiglottis and may lead to sudden airway obstruction, especially in children
What is also known as the windpipe? Trachea
Brief description of the trachea? Flexible, slightly rigid, tubular C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilages hat goes from larynx to main bronchi anterior to esophagus
What is a tracheotomy? Incision in trachea to facilitate breathing?
When is tracheotomy done? When airway is blocked or compromised
What is the Bronchial tree? System of highly branched air passages that originates at main bronchi and branches to more narrow tube and ends in small bronchiole passageways
What does the Trachea splits into? Right and left main bronchi at level of sternal angle
What is another name for the main bronchi? Primary bronchi
Which main bronchi is shorter, wider, and more vertically oriented? Right bronchus
Which main bronchi is more likely to have foreign particles lodged in there? Right bronchus
Where does each bronchus enters a lung on? Its medial surface
What is another name for the lobar bronchi? Secondary bronchi
Each main bronchus branches into what? Lobar bronchi
What do lobar bronchi further divide into? Segmental bronchi
What is another name for the segmental bronchi? Tertiary bronchi
What are bronchioles? tubes of < 1 mm
What are the last part of the conducting zone? Terminal bronchioles
What is the first part of the respiratory zone? Respiratory bronchioles
Describe the tree passageways Main --> lobar --> segmental --> bronchioles --> terminal bronchioloes --> respiratory bronchioles
What is Bronchitis? Inflammation of the bronchi caused by bacterial or viral infection or inhaled irritants
Brief description of ACUTE bronchitis occurs during/after infection ; coughing, sneezing, pain with inhalation, fever; 10-14 days
Brief description of CHRONIC bronchitis occurs after long-term irritant exposure; large amount of mucus, cough lasting > 3 months
What type of bronchitis may lead to permanent changes to bronchi occur and increases likelihood of future bacterial infections Chronic bronchitis
What is bronchoconstriction? Less air through bronchial tree (less entry of potentially harmful substances) due to muscle contraction
What is bronchodilation? More air flowing through bronchial tree due to muscle relaxation
What do episodes of asthma come with? Bronchoconstriction, wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and excess mucus
Where do the localized immune reaction occurs in dealing with asthma? In bronchi and bronchioles
What happens to the walls of the bronchi when one has asthma? It becomes permanently thickened
What are the primary treatments of asthma? Inhaled steroids and/or bronchodilators
What are alveoli? Saccular outpocketings
What are alveolar sacs? Clusters of alveoli
What do respiratory bronchiols subdivide into? Alveolar ducts which then subdivide into alveolar sacs
What is the epithelium of respiratory bronchioles? Simple cuboidal epithelium
What is the epithelium of alveoli and alveolar ducts? Simple squamous
Why is the epithelium of respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, and alveolar ducts thin? Thinness facilitates gas exchange
Simple squamous alveolar type I cells are part of what? Part of thin barrier separating air from blood
Alveolar type II cells are also called what? Septal cells
What do alveolar type II cells do? Coat inside of alveolus and opposes collapse during expiration
Alveolar macrophages are also called what? Dust cells
Where are alveolar macrophage what? Either fixed in alveolar wall or free to migrate
What are alveolar macrophages? Leukocytes that engulf microorganisms
What is the respiratory membrane? Thin barrier between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
What does the respiratory membrane consists of? Alveolar epithelium and its basement membrane; capillary epithelium and its basement membrane
What happens to the erythrocytes once oxygen diffuses from alveolus into capillaries? Erythrocytes become oxygenated
What happens to CO2 when diffused from blood to alveolus? Expired to external environment
Created by: elizabethcosio
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