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skeletal system

Bones are made of living tissue
Long Bones long axes and expanded ends (ex: bones in forearm/femur)
Short Bones Somewhat cubed and length/width are somewhat equal (ex:bones in wrist and ankle)
Flat Bones platelike with broad surfaces (ex: Ribs, Scapula and some bones of skull)
Irregular Bones come in variety of shapes and usually connected to several other bones. (ex: vertebrae and facial bones)
Sesamoid Bones Round, nodular, and embedded in the tendons (ex: the kneecap (patella) )
Epiphysis expanded portion at the end of the bone. This comes together with another bone and forms a joint and coated with a layer of articular cartilage
Diaphysis The shaft of the bone between the epiphysis. (The long part of the bone)
Periosteum A vascular covering of the fibrous tissue that enclosed the bone. (Helps for and repair bone tissue)
Compact Bone Tightly packed bone on the wall of the diaphysis
Spongy Bone (Located on the epiphysises) Consists of numerous branching bony plates.
Medullary Cavity Holow chamber inside the bone. The inside is lined with cells called Endosteum
Marrow specialized soft connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity
Bones cells are called Osteocytes
Intramembranous Bones These are broad, flat bones of the skull
Endochondral Bones These bones make up most of the bones of the skeleton
2 types of osteocytes osteoclasts and osteoblasts
Osteoclasts dissolve bone matrix
Osteoblasts replace bone matrix
What are the two major portions of the skeleton? The appendicular skeleton and the Axial skeleton
Axial skeleton Head, neck, and trunk
Skull consists of cranium (brain case) and the facial bones
Hyoid Bone Located in the neck below lower jaw
Vertebral column (backbone) Consists of many vertebrae that connect. At the bottom they fuse together to form the sacrum
Thoracic cage protects the viscera of the thoracic cavity and upper abdomen
How many pairs of ribs are there? 12
Appendicular skeleton upper and lower limbs and the bones that attach them to the axial skeleton
Pectoral Girdle Consists of scapula and clavical
Upper limbs consists of humerus (upper arm bone), radius, ulna (forearm bone), 8 carpals (wrist bone), metacarpals (Hand/palm bone), and the phalanges (fingers)
Pelvic Girdle 2 hip bones
Lower limbs Femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), fibula (lower leg bone), meta tarsals (foot bone), and phalanges (toes)
Bone Function Shape, support and protect body structure
What are the four parts of a lever? rod/bar(bone), falcrum(Joints), object/resistance(weight of object), and a force that gives energy to move(muscle).
Hematopoesis process of blood cell formation
The two kinds of marrow are Red and yellow
The skull consists of how many bones 44 (22 attached, 8 make up cranium, 14 form face)
The skulls bones are fused together by lines called sutures
The mandible forms the lower jaw
The cranium protects and encloses the brain
Frontal bone (forehead) located above the eyes
Parietal bone located on each side of the skull
Occipital bone Forms the back of the skull and the base if the cranium
Temporal bone Form part of the sides ans base of the cranium
Sphenoid bone Located between several bones toward the front of the cranium
Ethmoid bone Located in front of the sphenoid bone
The facial skeleton has how many bones? 13 immovable bones and a lower jawbone
Maxillae forms the upper jaw and makes up the roof of the mouth (hard palate) and the floors of the orbit and nasal cavity.
Palatine bones located behind the maxilla
Zygomatic bones located below and to the sides of the eyes (cheek bones)
Lacrimal bones Thin bone located in the medial wall of orbit (between eye sockets)
Nasal bones These are long and thin. Rectangular and lay side by side
Vomer bone located in middle of the middle cavity
Inferior nasal conchae Inferior shaped bones attached to the sides of the nasal cavity
Manible The lower jawbone
Fontanel Membranous areas of incomplete intramembranous ossification. (permit some movement between bones)
Vertebral column Extends from the skull to the pelvis
Typical vertebrae drum shaped body (thick portion)
Cervical vertebrae The cervical vertebrae of the neck
Thoracic vertebrae contains 2 vertebrae that are longer than the cervical vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae located in the small of the neck
Sacrum Triangular Structures
Coccyx (tailbone) lowest part of the vertebral column
The thoracic cage Includes ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and costal cartilage
How many true ribs are there? 7
How many false ribs are there? 5
How many floating ribs are there? 3
Sternum (breastbone) Located in the middle of the thoracic cage
Manubrium Top part of the sternum
Body Middle part of the sternum
Xiphoid Process Lower part of the sternum
Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle) Composed of 2 clavicles and 2 scapula
Clavicles (collarbone) Shaped like a rod, located at the base of the neck, and help hold the shoulder blade in place
Scapulae (shoulder blades) Shaped like triangles, located on each side of the upper back
ROM range of motion
Contracture Tightening and shortening of a muscle
Muscle Atrophy Muscles shrink and become weak
Circulatory Impairment Circulation of the blood is impaired
Mineral Loss Bones lose calcium
active ROM Patients perform exercises on their own
Active Assistive ROM Patient actively moves joints but needs assistance to complete full ROM
Passive ROM Another person moves each joint for a patient that is unable to move
Resistive ROM Administered by a therapist
Abduction Moving a part away from the midline of the body
Adduction Moving a part toward the midline of the body
Flexion Bending a body part
Extension Straightening a body part
Hypertension Excessive Straightening of a body part
Rotation Moving a body part around its own axis
Cirucumduction Moving in a circle at a point
Pronation Turning a body part upward
Supination Turning a body part upward
Opposition Touching each of the fingers to the tip of the thumb
Inversion Turning a body part inward
Eversion Turning a body part outward
Dorsiflexion Bending backward
Plantar flexion Bending forward
Radial Deviation Moving toward the thumb side of hand
Ulnar Deviation Moving toward the little finger side of the hand
Joint Functional junction between bones
Fibrous Joints Between bones that are close together (bines bones together) (ex: between flat bones of skull)
Cartilaginous Joints Hyaline cartilage binds these together (ex: between vertebrae)
Synovial Joints Most joints of the skeletal system, allow free movement
Ball and Socket joint Globe or egg shaped head that articulates with a cup shaped cavity of another bone (ex: shoulder and hip)
Condyloid Joint Oval shaped condile fits into elliptical cavity of another bone (ex: metacarpals and phalanges)
Gliding Joint mostly flat, allow sliding and twisting movements (ex: wrist and ankle)
Hinge Joints Convex surface of bone fits into concave surface of another (ex: elbow and phalanges)
Pivot Joints Cylinder surface of one bone rotates in a ring of another bone (ex:radius and ulna)
Saddle joints Articulating bones have concave and convex regions (ex: carpals and metacarpals)
Flexion Bending parts so that the angle between them decreases (bending arm)
Extension Straightening parts so that the angle between them increases (straightening arm)
Dorsiflexion Movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin (walking on your heels)
Plantar Flexion Movement at the ankle that brings the foot father from the shin (walking on or pointing toes)
Hyperextension Extension of the parts at a joints beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back)
Abduction Moving a part away from the midway of the body
Adduction Moving a part toward the midline
Rotation Moving a part around on a axis
Circumduction Moving a part so that its ends follow a circular path
pronation Turning the hand so that the palm is downward
Supination Turning the hand so that the palm is upward
Eversion Turning the foot so the plantar surface faces laterally
Inversion Turning the foot so the plantar surface faces medially
Retraction Moving a part backward
Protraction Moving a part forward
Elevation Raising a part
Depression Lowering a part
Upper limb Forms the framework of the arm, forearm and hand
Humerus Extends from the scapula to the elbow
Radius Located on thumb side of forearm
Ulna Longer than radius
Hand Made up of wrist, palm and fingers
How many phalanges does each finger have 3
How many phalanges does the thumb have 2
Created by: paytontaylor19



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