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test 2

organization of the neck

the fascia of the neck is arranged into? superficial(subcutaneous connective tissue) and deep fascia
what is the deep fascia of the neck arranged into? investing deep cervical layer, prevertebral fascia, pretracheal fascia, and bilateral carotid sheaths
where does the sternocleidomastoid muscle run? manubrium of sternum & medial 1/3 clavicle, to the mastoid process of temporal bone
what is the action of the unilateral contraction of the sternocleido? pulls the mastoid process ant and inf rotating the face to the contralateral side
what is the action of the bilateral contraction of the sternocleido? pulls the head forward and the chin upward
nerve innervation for the sternocleidomastoid? accesory nerve of cranial nerve 11 and anterior ramus of C2
what is congenital or spasmodic torticollis? damage to the sternocleido muscle, or its nerve during birth or in adulthood
what are the borders of the posterior cervical triangle? post border of the SCM, ant border of the trapezius and the middle 1/3 of the clavicle
what sub divides the posterior triangle? the inf belly of the omohyoid muscle.
what are the subdivisions of the post cervical triangle? occiptal triangle and the supraclavicular trianlge
muscles of the post cervical floor include? splenius capitis, levator scapulae, post scalene, middle scalene, and ant scalene
what is the muscle of facial expression that comes down the neck? platysma muscle
what nerve innervates the platysma? facial nerve-CN 7
which cervical triangles does the platysma cross? as it comes down the neck it crosses the ant and post cervical triangles
what does the external jugular vein run through?what runs with the ext jugular vein? just deep to the platysm it runs right over the top of the SCM and posterior triangle. cutaneous nerve brances from the cervical plexus
the external jugular vein is formed by the unioin of? retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein.
after the jugular vein descends down the neck where does it connect too? as it exits the neck it connects to the subclavian vein
does the external jugular vein directly connect to the brachiocephalic? NO
a patient has obstruction of blood flow through the heart and you suspect that there might be a problem in the venous system. what probably happened? the external jugular vein was cut as it pierces throught the investing layer of deep cervical fascia
what are the cutaneous nerves of the posterior cervical triangle? C2-C3=greater auricular, transverse cervical, and lesser occiptal C#-C4=supraclavicular
where does the supraclavicular nerve refer pain too? the ipsilateral shoulder through the phrenic nerve on that same side
which spinal accessory nerve runs through the posterior cervical triangle innervating two very important muscles? cranial nerve 11, and the two muscles are the trapezius and the SCM
a patient is having trouble abducting the arm and shrugging the shoulders after a stab wound to the neck what structure is most likely damaged? spinal accessory nerve (CN 11) that innervates the trapezius and the SCM
what are some other contents of the post cervical triangle? subclavain vein, subclavian artery(3rd part), transerse cervical artery, suprascapular artery, trunk roots and branches of brachial plexus, and branches from cervical plexus
the subclavian vein is a continuation of the? axillary vein
the sublavain connects to the ____ to form the ____? internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic trunk
which muscle does the subclavian vein cross in the posterior cervical triangle? anterior scalene
what is the clinical signifcance of the subclavain vein? it is a good location to administer fluids and meds to because it goes straight to the right side of the heart
a hockey player is sliced by a skate blade in the supraclavicular cervical triangle. which structure could be compressed to control bleeding? you could compress the subclavian artery against the 1st rib to control bleeding
transverse cervical artery and suprascapular artery branch from the? third part of the subclavian artery
what does the transverse cervical artery divide into and what muscles do those divisions innervate? divides into deep and superficial branches that innervate the levator scapulae and rhomboids
if the deep branch of the transverse cervical artery is not present than what substitutes for the missing artery? dorsal scapular artery
what structure emerges between the ant and middle scalene muscels? roots of the brachial plexus
what structures are liable to compression with a cervical rib condition? subclavian artery or the inf trunk of the brachial plexus
where will the pain and neuro issues be felt if a cervical rib is present? most likely in the arm and hand of the ipsilateral compression
ALL nerves of the posterior cervical triangle include? phrenic nerve, suprascapular nerve, spinal accessory nerve(CN 11), and the cutaneous nerves(greater auricular, transverse cervical, lesser occiptal, and supraclavicular), nerve to subclavius muscle, long thoracic nerve, and dorsal scapular nerve
anerior cervical triangle is located where? anterior to the anterior border of the SCM
what are the four palpable structures of the anterior cervical triangle? hyoid bone, crycoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, and tracheal cartilage
what are the four subdivisions of the anterior cervical triangle? submandibular-submental-muscular-carotid
structures in the anterior cervical triangle include? platysma muscle and the anterior jugular veins
where does the anterior vein drain into the external jugular vein
muscles of the anterior cervical triangle are all grouped under what name? infrahyoid muscles
what are the two main subsets of muscles that comprise the infrahyoid muscles? superficial layer of muscles and the deep layer of muscles
which muscles comprise the parallel superficial muscles of the infrahyoid muscles? sternohyoid and the superior and inferior omohyoid(where a tendon sling causes it to make a sharp lateral 90 degree turn
which muscles comprise the parallel deep muscles of the infrahyoid muscles? sternothyroid(inferiorly) and thyrohyoid(superiorly)
what is the main purpose of the infrahyoid muscles? to stabilize the hyoid bone as a base of support for tongue movement
what is the nerve innervation for the infrahyoid muscles? ansa cervicalis(a nerve loop)
what forms the nerve innervation for the infrahyoid muscles? anterior rami of spinal nerves C1-C3
what connects the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland together? the isthmus
where can an extra lobe be located on the thyroid gland? frequently it will rise superiorly from the isthmus and is called the pyramidal lobe
what is the main function of the thyroid gland? produces hormones essential to growth regulation and maintenance of chemical homeostasis
blood supply to the thyroid gland is? inferior thyroid arteries and superior thyroid arteries
venous drainage of the thyroid? superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins
what is one type of hyperthyroidism causing the eyes to bulge out? exophthalmic goiter-due to edema of the extraocular muscles
what structure in the anterior cervical triangle will prevent a goiter from expanding upward in the neck? the sternohyoid muscles
what is the danger of a retrosternal goiter? because the goiter expand downward in the neck it could compress thoracic structures such as the SVC
what structures lie in pairs on the posterior sides of the thyroid gland? the parathyroid glands
about what size are the parathyroid glands? the size of a lentil
blood supply to the parathyroid glands? usually from the inferior thyroid arteries
what is the differnce in origin between the left and right common carotid arteries? the right originates from the brachiocephalic trunk and the left comes directly out of the aorta
along with the common carotid arteries what else runs in the carotid sheaths? internal jugular veins and vagus nerves
what happens to the common carotid arteries at the thyroid cartilage? they bifurcate into external and internal carotid arteries.
what is so important at the site of bifurcation of the common carotids? there are two types of specialized receptors at the bifurcation
what type of receptor is found in the carotid sinus? blood pressure receptor
what type of receptor is found in the carotid body? a chemoreceptor for blood gasses
what causes fainting? external pressure to the carotid sinus
a cardiac patient and an atherosclerotic patient both need to have their carotid pulse taken. where wouldn't you take it and why? at the carotid sinus, a.k.a. upper border of the thyroid cartilage, because the carotid sinus is hypersensitive to external pressure and carotid sinus syncope might occur
which common carotid has no branches and supplies the brain and the orbit? internal carotid arteries.
where is a common site for atherosclerotic formation? internal common carotids
what would be an example of a temporary and long term loss of neurological function due to loss of cerebral blood flow? short term=TIA's long term=stroke CVA
what are the artery branches of the external carotid arteries?(FLOSS M) facial-lingual-occipital-superior thyroid-superficial temporal-maxillary
which veins are the biggest in the head and neck? internal jugular veins
which veins do the internal jugular veins connect to, forming the brachiocephalic? subclavian veins
which nerve runs in the carotid sheaths? the vagus nerve-the longest of the cranial nerves
the soft palate is innervated by which nerve? vagus(CN 10)
which nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue? CN 12-hypoglossal
while making out, a GF noticed the deviation of the BF's tongue. you suspect that there is damage to the nerve innervation of the tongue. you have him/her stick out the tongue and it deviates to the patient's right. happened? there has been a lesion of the 12th CN(hypoglossal) on the right side causing paralysis
the submandibular cervical triangle is bound by what two important muscles? digastric muscle(ant & post bellies) and the stylohyoid muscle
what does the digastric muscle do? elevates the hyoid bone and depresses the mandible(opens the mouth)
what does the stylohyoid muscle do? draws the hyoid bone up and back
the floor of the oral cavity is due to what conctribution of the submandibular triangle? the mylohyoid muscles from each side fuse at the center creating the floor of the oral cavity
which subdivision of the anterior cervical triangle has most of the salivary glands? the submandibular triangle
what gives rise to the phrenic nerve, which innervates the diaphragm? cervical plexus
Created by: chadlarson



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