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Ch 19 Blood

Functions of Blood vessels

What results in the failure of vessels to transport blood? Ischemia
Symptoms of blood vessel ischemia Pain, pulselessness, pallor, parenthesia, paralysis, coolness
What do blood vessels regulate? BP
What do blood vessels exchange? Nutrients and waste
Blood vessels are involved with redistribution of: Blood
What else do blood vessels regulate? Temperature
BP def. The force exerted against the walls of the (large) arteries due to the pumping of the heart
Types of blood pressure Systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure
Systolic pressure def. The pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction
Average Systolic Pressure 120mmHg
Normal range of systolic pressure 100-140mmHg
Diastolic pressure def. The pressure in the arteries during ventricular relaxation
Pulse pressure def. Systolic - diastolic = pulse pressure
Instruments used in measuring BP sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
________________ is compressed until blood flow is ___________. Brachial artery; stopped
First sounds heard when listening for systolic pressure Korotkoff sounds (first heard thru stethoscope)
What is recorded when Kortkoff sounds stop? Diastolic pressure
Hypertension def. Chronic elevation of BP
Due to low pressure in veins, blood relies on three other mechanisms to return blood back to the heart Skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump, venoconstriction
Contraction of the heart muscle forces blood out the: Ventricles from an area of high pressure to low pressure (BP - result of myocardium and blood vessels)
Blood vessels have the ability to change _____. Diameter
Vasodilation def. Increase in vessel diameter causes a decrease in resistance and a decrease in BP
Vasoconstriction def. Decrease in vessel diameter causes an increase resistance and an increase in BP
Blood pressure = 2/3 diastolic pressure + 1/3 systolic pressure
Cardiac output = SV x HR
Increase in SV and/or HR can increase: CO and therefore BP (and vice versa)
What do arterioles primarily determine? Vascular resistance
What influences vascular resistance Sympathetic NS, Hormones (epinephrine, angiotensin II), drugs
Where are baroreceptors located? Aortic arch, carotid sinus
Sensory nerves involved in maintaining BP? Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X)
Function of medulla oblongata in maintaining BP? Interprets info from sensory nerves
Motor nerces involved with maintaining BP ANS to heart in vessels
Hormones involved in maintaining BP Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Rapidly acting mechanisms involved in maintaining BP? Baroreceptors, sensory nerves, medulla oblongata, motor nerves, nor/epinephrine
What are slow acting mechanisms? Hormone regulated long-term maintenance
Where is atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) produced? The heart (also lower BP)
At the level of the capillary, what moves out of the blood stram into the surrounding tissue space (interstinum) Water, oxygen, electrolytes, glucose
At the level of the capillary, waste products move from where to where? From the interstinum into the capillary
Characteristics of capillaries Thin walled w/ pores, numerous, slow blood flow
What happens during diffusion? O2 to cells, waste to vessels
What happens during filtration? H2O, glucose, electrolytes from blood vessels to tissue
What happens to during osmosis? H2O from tissue to blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
Edema def. The accumulation of fluid in interstitial space
Mechanisms of edema formation Heart failure, severe burn, kidney disease, blocked lymphatic drainage
Mech for edema formation: heart failure Pulmonary edema, pedal edema
Edema formation: severe burn Excessive fluid build up in interstitial space
Edema formation: kidney disease Excess execretion of albumin in the urine (albuminuria) results in the build up of fluis in the tissue space
What causes vasodilation of vessels of skin? Temperature elevation
When body temp. increases more blood flows to skin thereby releasing: Heat and lowering body temp
What causes vasoconstriction of vessels of skin? Temp. decrease
When body temp. decreases less blood flows to skin thereby: Diverting warm blood to core of body
What happens as walls of arties thicken with age? Decreased blood flow and increased blood pressure
With age, as valves become less effective they become susceptible to: Varicosities
As you age, roughening of the endothelial lining of vessels: Increased blood clot formation
With age baroreceptors become less effective. This can result in: Dizziness and falls
With age, increased capillary membrane permeability, there's increased: Edema formation
Created by: CBaney



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