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Ch 18 Blood Vessels

Anatomy of Blood Vessels

Path of blood in pulmonary circulation From the right ventricle of heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium
Path of blood in aortic circulation Carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium
Capillaries connect: Arterioles with venuoles
The exchange of oxygen occurs at the _________ level. Capillary
Lumin def. Open space of blood vessels
Innermost layer of blood vessels: Tunica Intima - endothelial lining. smooth, shiny surgace allowing blood to flow.
What is the function of the smoothness of the tunica intima? Prevents blood clots
Middle layer of blood vessels: Tunica media - composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle which allows change in diameter for blood to flow (vasoconstriction)
Outermost layer of blood vessels: Tunica adventitia - composed of tough connective tissue which is needed to withstand elements of the body
Nickname for arteries Conductance vessels
Function of conductance vessels Conduct blood from larger arteries to arterioles
Nickname for arterioles Resistance vessels
Function of resistance vessels Constrict vessels (inc. resistance) and dilate (dec. resistance) thereby altering blood flow
Nickname for capillaries Exchange vessels
Function of exchange vessels Allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste
Nickname for veins and venules Capacitance vessels
Function of capacitance vessels Storage of blood. Approximately 70% of blood volume is found in venous circulation
Which vessels have lots of smooth muscle for their size which plays a major role of blood flow in the body Resistance vessels (arterioles)
The aorta is the major artery of _________ circulation Systemic
From what part of the heart does the aorta originate? Left ventricle
Branches of aorta Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta
What arteries branch off from the aorta? Brachiocephalic artery or trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery
What arteries branch off from the brachiocephalic artery or trunk? Right common carotid arty, right subclavian artery
Branches off the descending aorta Thoracic and abdominal aorta
Branch off of thoracic aorta Posterior intercostal ateries
Branch off of abdominal arteries Celiac trunk, Superior/Inferior Mesenteric Artery, Right/Left Renal Arteries, Gonadal Arteries, Lumbar Arteries
Where does the aorta end? L4
What happens to the aorta at L4? Branches into right and left common iliac artery
Name the two classifications of veins Deep and superficial
Most deep veins run: Parallel to arteries and have the same name
Where does the vena cavae retuen deoxygenated blood? Right atrium
SVC and IVC _____ blood from head and lower extremities. Drain
Veins that drain directly into SVC Right/left brachiocephalic veins, azygos vein - drains thorax
Veins that drain directly into the IVC Right/left common iliac veins join together to form IVC, renal veins, hepatic veins
Major superficial veins of systemic circulation Cephalic, Basilic, Median cubital, Great saphenous - longest vessel
Info on cephalic vein Drains lateral arm and empties into axillary vein
Info on basilic vein Drains medial arm and joins with brachial vein to form axillary vein
Info on median cubital vein Connects cephalic and basilic veins in cubital fossa.
Info on great saphenous vein Longest vein in the body - starts on medial foot and merges with femoral vein
In order to recieve sufficient oxygen the brain receives a dual blood supply from what vessels? Right/left vertebral and right/left internal carotid arteries.
Internal carotid arteries are a branch of what artery? Common carotid artery
External carotid arteries supply what? Neck, face, scalp
What blood vessel supplies most of the brain's oxygen? Internal Carotid Artery
Carotid Sinus def. Dilated region at the origin of the internal carotid that functions as a baroreceptor
Vertebral arteries are a branch of what artery? Subclavian artery
Vertebral arteries on the brain stem to form the Basilar Artery
Circle of Willis def. Circular arrangement of arteries that give off branches that supply oxygen to the brain
The Circle of Willis is formed by branches of the (2): Internal carotid artery and basilar artery
Occlusion of the blood supply to the brain may result in: Dizziness, confusion, stroke (resulting from dead brain tissue)
Veins involved in drainage of head and brain External/internal jugular vein
Characteristics of external jugular veins Superficial to IJV, drain posterior to head and neck, empty into subclavian veins
Characteristics of internal jugular veins Drain anterior head, neck, face; join with subclavian veins to form brachiocephalic veins, drains most blood from the venous sinuses of brain
Hepatic circulation is AKA Blood supply to liver and portal circulation
Three groups of vessels associated with hepatic circulation Portal vein, hepatic veins/arteries
The portal vein is formed by the joining of the: Superior Mesenteric and Splenic Veins
Function of portal vein Carries blood rich in digestive end products from the digestive organs to the liver. (Liver is essential in the metabolism of carbs, fats, proteins; detoxification, storage, etc.
Hepatic artery is a branch of: Celiac trunk
Function of hepatic artery Supply oxygen to the liver
Function of the hepatic vein Drains deoxygenated blood from liver. empties in the IVC
In fetal circulation, the developing fetus relies on maternal vlood supply to provide oxygen and nutrients as well as _______. Eliminate waste products
Fetal circulation occurs via: The umbilical cord
The umbilical cord consists of these vessels: One large umbilical vein and two similar umbilical arteries.
Only _______, not _________ travel from mother to fetus. Nutrients; blood
Several modifications of fetal circulation Umbilical veins and arteries, ductus venosus, foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus
Function of umbilical vein Carry oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus
Function of umbilical artery Carry deoxygenated blood and waste products to placenta
Where do the unbilical arteries originate? Right/left common iliac arteries of fetus
Function of ductus venosus (umbilical circulation) Connects umbilical vein to IVC (allows oxygenated blood to be carried toward the right atrium of fetal heart)
Function of foramen ovale (umbilical circulation) Opening within interatrial septum which allows blood to flow from right to left atrium thereby bypassing fatal lungs
Function of ductus arteriosus (umbilical circulation) Allows blood to flow from the pulmonary artery into the aorta thereby bypassing the fetal lungs
What can cause premature closing of the ductus arteriosus? Drugs such as aspirin and indomethacin
What is the result of a failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth? Patent (open, free-flowing) ductus arteriosus creating a left-to-right shunt
Pulse - Pressure _________ traveling through the _____________ with each beat of the heart due to an _____________ and recoiling of _________. Wave; arteries; alternating expansion; arteries
Taking a pulse provides info on: HR, regularity/strength of heart beat, occlusion or blockage of artery
Created by: CBaney



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