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Apologia Human Body

Module 5

QuestionAnswer
How can you tell if a sample of muscle tissue is the complete muscle or part of the muscle? If there is a wrapping around all if the fascicles, it is the epimysium, meaning it is complete.
ATP molecules are bond to the myosin heads in a sarcomere and are breaking down. This is the ___________ stroke. return
If the Ca2+ concentration in the sarcoplasmic reticulum suddenly increased dramatically, the muscle is ____________________ its contraction. finishing
When the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+ ions in response to the action potential, the ions move through the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum via ____________________. diffusion
when the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+ ions in response the the action potential, the ions move through the membrane os the sarcoplasmic reticulum and this is _______________ transport. passive
If someone is working out and gets so fatigued that they run out of energy and their muscle fibers can no longer produce ATP, what will happen in his sarcomeres? Muscle cramp/stiffness
Two muscle fibers lie side by side and contract and relax differently, so they are a part of ___________________ motor units different
A muscle contracts, but only a small percentage of its motor units have been recruited. What kind of stimulus is being applied? Submaximal stimulus
The cells in a person's leg muscles all have a large amount of lactic acid in them. There is a ___________ amount of creatine phosphate in those cells. small
The cells in a person's leg muscles all have a large amount of lactic acid in them. This person is resting, and is most likely breathing __________________. heavily
Major characteristics of muscle tissue contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
Types of muscle tissue skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Skeletal muscle cells have _____________ nuclei. many
Skeletal muscle cells are at the _________ of the cell. edge
When a muscle fiber contracts, the distance between the Z discs, the length of the H zone, and the length of the I band decreases
When a muscle fiber contracts, the length of the A band, the myosin myofilament, and the actin myofilament ____________________ . stays the same
The concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is decreasing, so the muscle fiber is ____________ contracting. starting
The myosin heads of a sarcomere have just received a boost of energy, meaning the ___________________ is about the happen. return stroke
A myosin head has ADP attached to it but not an individual phosphate, so the __________________ is about to happen next. power stroke
All of the cells in the same motor unit will ___________ identically at the same time. contract
The function of ___________________ is to inactivate the ACh after it has interacted with the postsynaptic membrane. acetylcholinesterase
ATP provides the ________________________ with energy for the active transport of calcium ions into itself, which is critical for muscle relaxation sarcoplasmic reticulum
ATP attaches to the myosin heads, making them release the active sites and giving them ____________ for the return stroke. energy
A muscle is stiff and can neither contract or relax. The _______________ must be gripping the active sites and not letting go, due to a lack of ATP in the sarcomre. myosin heads
When a motor neuron is recruited, it is responding to a stimulus by sending __________________ down its axon. This stimulates contraction of the muscle fiber in its control. action potentials
When a muscle cell relaxes, the myosin heads let go of the active sites, making it very easy for the muscle to stretch out, but that does not ___________________ happen. automatically
All of the motor units in a muscle have been recruited. If more stimulus is applied, this is called ______________. supramaximal stimulus
A muscle is expending energy faster than it can be replaced by aerobic respiration. There is also no creatine phosphate left. the only option for energy left is _____________________________. anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration leads to a build up of this. Lactic acid
When breathing hard after exercising, this fuels aerobic respiration and provides energy for the muscle fiber to convert lactic acid to _________________. glucose
Aerobic respiration after exercise provides energy for the muscle fiber to remake _____________________ for an energy reserve. creatine phosphate
Sarcomere The repeating unit of a myofibril
Synapse The interface between a nerve cell and another cell
Neurotransmitter A chemical released by a neuron. This chemical travels across the synaptic cleft, allowing the neuron to communicate with another cell.
Motor unit One motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
All-or-none law of skeletal muscle contraction An individual muscle fiber contracts with equal force in response to each action potential
Muscle tone The state of partial contraction in a muscle, even when the muscle is not being used
Created by: q