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Urinary System

MBC 100 The Language of Medicine, Ch. 7

QuestionAnswer
acetone Ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells.
albuminuria Protein in the urine.
anti-diuretic hormone Pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excess loss of water. Also called vasopressin.
anuria Supression of urine formation by the kidney.
arteriole Very small artery.
azatemia Excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood; uremia.
bacteriuria Bacteria in the urine.
calciferol An active form of vitamin D, necessary for the absorption of calcium from the intestine.
caliceal Pertaining to a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney).
caliectasis Dilation or widening of a calyx. This occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis.
calyx; calyces Cup-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney).
catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids.
cortex Outer region of an organ.
cortical Pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ).
creatinine Nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine.
creatinine clearance Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
CT urography X-ray images using computed tomography show multiple cross-sectional and other views of the kidney.
cystectomy Excision (removal) of the urinary bladder.
cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
cystoscopy Visual examination of the urinary bladder.
cystostomy New opening of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
diabetes insipidus Abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland.
diabetes mellitus Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
diuresis Increased excretion of urine by the kidneys. A diuretic is an agent that increases diuresis, such as tea, coffee, or water.
dysuria Painful urination.
edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces.
electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. (Sodium, potassium, and chloride)
enurisis Bedwetting. Literally "in urine."
erythropoietin Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow.
essential hypertension High blood pressure due to no apparent cause.
filtration Process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material.
glomerular capsule Cup-like structure that surrounds each glomerulus. Also called Bowman capsule.
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of glemeruli in the kidney.
glomerulus; glomeruli Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney. As blood flows through each these, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream.
glycosuria Sugar in the urine.
hematuria Blood in the urine.
hemodialysis Removal of waste materials from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning. Blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes before sending the blood back into the body through a vein.
hilum Depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as a kidney and lung. It is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ.
hydronephrosis Abnormal condition of excess backup of fluid (urine) in the kidney.
hyperkalemeia Abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood.
hypernatremia Abnormally high levels of sodium in the bloodstream.
interstitial nephritis Inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules.
intravesical Within the urinary bladder.
ketonuria Presence of ketones in the urnine. Common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur in any time the body begins to break down fatty tissue provide energy as in starvation.
ketosis Accumulation of large quantities of ketone bodies (acetones) in the blood; ketoacidosis.
kidney One of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
lithotripsy Process of using high-energy sound waves to crush a stone with the kidney or ureter.
meatal stenosis Narrowing of the meatus (opening) leading from the urethra to the outside of the body.
meatus Opening or canal.
medulla Inner region of an organ.
medullary Pertaining to the medulla or an organ.
MRI urography Process of taking MRI images of the urinary tract after injecting contrast.
nephrolithiasis Abnormal condition of kidney stones.
nephrolithotomy Incision of the kidney to remove a stone.
nephron Functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, renal tubule, and collecting tubule.
nephropathy Disease of the kidneys.
nephroptosis Prolapse of a kidney; floating or wandering kidney.
nephrostomy Opening of the kidney to the outside of the body.
nephrotic syndrome Group of symptoms that occur due to loss of protein in the urine. AKA nephrosis.
nitrogenous waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine; examples are urea, creatine, and uric acid.
nocturia Urinary frequency at night.
oliguria Scanty urination.
parenchyma Essential, functioning cells of any organ. Neurons (nerve cells) are this portion of the nervous system.
paranephric Pertaining to beside or near a kidney.
peritoneal dialysis Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream by introducing fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes then leave the bloodstream and enter the fluid, which is drained through an abdominal catheter.
phenylketonuria Excess of phenylketones in the urine; diagnosed by a PKU test at birth.
polycystic kidney disease Kidneys are filled with cysts that prevent normal kidney funciotn.
polydipsia Excessive thirst.
polyuria Excessive urination.
potassium Chemical element that forms salts with other minerals such as calcium and is vital for bodily processes. Electrolyte balanced by the kidney.
pyelolithotomy Incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis of the kidney.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney; caused by bacterial infection.
pyuria Pus in the urine; sign of urinary tract infection (UTI).
reabsorption Process in the kidney by which the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal nagiography X-ray record of blood vessels of the kidney after injecting contrast material.
renal angioplasty X-ray record of blood vessels of the kidney after injecting contrast material.
renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
renal calculi Kidney stones.
renal cell carcinoma Malignant tumor of the kidney in an adult.
renal colic Severe pain resulting from stones (calculi) in a ureter or in the kidney (renal pelvis).
renal failure Failure of the kidneys to produce and excrete urine.
renal hypertension High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
renal ischemia Condition in which blood is held back from the kidney, often by blockage of renal arteries and arterioles.
renal pelvis Central collecting chamber of the kidney.
renal transplantaion Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
renal tubule Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney back toward the heart.
renin A substance (enzyme) synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney to raise blood pressure. It causes narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels.
retrograde pyelogram X-ray record of the kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder after injection of contrast material through a urinary catheter into the ureters
secondary hypertension High blood pressure caused by kidney disease or by other disorders.
sodium Chemical element necessary for cellular functioning; an electrolyte regulated by the kidneys.
stricture Narrowing of a tubular structure in the body.
trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits.
trigonitis Inflammation of the trigone of the urinary bladder.
urea Major nitrogenous waste material in urine.
uremia Excessive amount of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
ureter One of two tubes carrying urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
ureterileostomy New opening of the ureters to an isolated portion of the ileum that has been removed from its normal location and connected to the outside of the body. It serves as a passageway for urine to leave the body when the urinary bladder is not functioning.
ureteroneocystostomy Surgical transplantation of a ureter to a new site in the urinary bladder. This occurs with a kidney transplant.
ureteroplasty Surgical repair of the urethra.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
urethral stricture Narrowing of the urethra.
urethritis Inflammation of the urethra.
urthroplasty Surgical repair of the urethra.
uric acid Nitrogenous waste formed when proteins are used in cells . It is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
urinalysis Series of tests to evaluate the composition of urine. It includes tests to determine color, appearance, sugar. bacteria, and protein in blood.
urinary bladder Hollow container with muscular walls that holds and stores urine until it is discharged from the body.
urinary catherization Passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
urinary incontinence Involuntary passage of urine.
urinary retention Inability to pass urine, which is held back in the urinary bladder.
urination The process of expelling urine; micturition; voiding.
vesicourteral reflux Backflow of urine from the urinary bladder to the ureters.
voiding Urination.
voiding cystourethrogram X-ray record of the urinary bladder and urethra taken while a patient is urinating and after contrast material is injected retrograde through the urethra.
Wilms tumor Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in childhood.
Created by: Momster