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Pulmonary Disease

Pulmonary Disease: Cardinal Signs and Symptoms

What is coughing a reflex to? Irritation of trachea and bronchial vessels.
What does coughing do? Clears stuff out of airways (involves the mucous elevator)
What can be a cardinal sign of respiratory problems/disease? Coughing
What is sputum? Spit
Excess mucous triggers what? Coughing.
What does yellow sputum suggest? Infections (Lungs are easily infected).
what does green sputum tell us? Pus - Neutrophils are responding to a problem. Neutrophils release green chemical and pus indicates that infections are occurring deeper in the lungs.
Throat clearing usually produces sputum from what area of body? nasal passages or sinuses. (higher areas)
Pink, frothy sputum can indicate what? acute pulmonary edema. (can come from surfactant - pt is coughing deep).
What color does hemoptysis look when it is coming from the lower lungs? As opposed to blood from the nose or gut? Blood from lower lungs is usually frothy and bright red. Blood from the nose or gut is dark, not frothy.
What generally is the cause of coughing pure blood? What about sputum with blood IN it? Pure blood is bad - tuberculosis. Sputum with blood in it can be from an infection.
What is the definition of dyspnea? Difficulty breathing. (one's sense of being out of breath - subjective)
Dyspnea is a common indication of what types of problems? Cardiovascular, respiratory or both (or really anything).
Dyspnea can lead to _____________ which can lead to _____________. Dyspnea can lead to hyperventilation which can lead to blowing off more CO2 than necessary.
What is a possible cause of people who are getting enough air and still experiencing dyspnea? It's possible that the receptors in the chest can "misread" conditions, and tell the brain that not enough air is coming in, even though there is.
What is orthopnea? How is this often measured? Dyspnea when leaning back (or lying down). Can be measured by the number of pillows under the head required to alleviate the sensation (more pillows = worse orthopnea)
Why do patients with CHF or other heart problems often experience dyspnea? They are having trouble returning blood to the central blood vessels from peripheral vessels.
What is paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea? Dyspnea that happens in the middle of the night, long after the patient has lain down - fluid collected in the peripheral tissues is returned to the central veins, which produces hypertension. Pulmonary HT and pulmonary edema = dyspnea.
What is CP that is associated with lung disease? Pleurisy
What is pleurisy? The parietal layer of the pleura gets damaged by infection or ischemia and produces the pain.
What causes the pain in pleurisy? Damage of the parietal layer causes pain . Damage to the visceral layer does not generate pain (no pain receptors).
What can finger clubbing tell us? Finger clubbing shows up mostly in pulmonary diseases, but can also occur in Cardiovascular diseases.
What is cyanosis? Patient appears blue in their skin and/or mucous membranes.
When a tourniquet is placed on a persons arm, why does the distal part become blue? Hemoglobin appears blue inside a person's body when it is oxygen deficient.
What causes cyanosis? Pt has relatively deoxygenated blood. (Reduced Hb in blood is blue)
Central cyanosis vs. Peripheral cyanosis. Central: occurs because of insufficient oxygenation of blood in the lungs causes face, earlobes, under tongue and lips to turn blue. Peripheral - blood flow through an area is abnormal, producing reduced Hb in that area.
What is hypoxemia? Low blood oxygen, detected by arterial oxygen levels and low Hb saturation. (hypoxic in blood and body - will see cyanosis)
What is hypoxia? Deficient tissue oxygenation.
What has low oxygen in the tissues even though the carrying capacity of the blood is normal? Hypoxic hypoxia.
What results from deficient carrying capacity - (anything that reduces hemoglobin)? Anemic hypoxia
what results when cardiac output is reduced (pressure, volume, or maybe both) with normal blood oxygen capacity? Circulatory hypoxia.
what happens when cells can't use oxygen that's being made available to it? Histotoxic hypoxia (cyanide effects on the electron transport chain).
Arterial CO2 partial pressure is very near to alveolar CO2 partial pressure, which is ____________. 40mmHg.
What is hypercapnia? Arterial CO2 partial pressure above 45 mm Hg.
What causes hypercapnia? This happens because not enough air is exchanging in the alveoli. This will always lead to at least some hypoxia. (not unloading CO2 quick enough)
What is hypocapnia? Arterial CO2 partial pressure is less than 35 mm Hg.
Created by: sam_melillo
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