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Anatomy - Physiology

QuestionAnswer
the attachment of a muscle to a bone or structure that doesn’t move when the muscle contracts. example: anchor Origin
the attachment of a muscle to a bone or structure that moves when the muscle contracts insertion
a muscle that has its origin and insertion located in the same body region. EX The temporalis muscle is ________ to the head because its origin and insertion are both in the head. Intrinsic Muscle
A muscle that has its origin located in a body region different from that of its insertion. EX the sternocleidomastoid muscle is _______ to the head because its origin is in the head but the insertion is in the thorax Extrinsic muscle
A muscle that holds an origin stable for another muscle. Fixator
Muscles that have the same action Synergist
The main muscle of the synergists that performs the action Prime Mover
A muscle that has an opposing action. Antagonist
Action that bends a part of the body anteriorly Flexion
an action that bends a part of the body posteriorly Extension
movement of a part of the body away from the midline. Abduction
movement that brings part of the body forward. Protraction
position of standing on tiptoes with the heels off the floor. (planting a seed). plantar flextion
movement of the jaw laterally to either side lateral excursion
the act of bringing the thumb to the palm. Opposition:
movement of the jaw back to the midline. medial excursion
the act of spinning on an axis.  Rotation
the act of taking the thumb away from the palm. Reposition:
Connective tissue surrounding the muscle cell/fiber endomysium
Muscle fibers are grouped together to form a______ Fascicle
The connective tissue surrounding he fascicle Perimysium
________ are grouped together to form a muscle Fascicles
The entire muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue called the______ Epimysium
_________ surrounds several muscles of an area, forming muscle muscle compartments, and it separates muscle from the hypodermis. EX Foam roller Fascia
The three connective tissues Endomysium, Perimysium, Epimysium
runs between muscle fibers endomysium
surrounds each fascicle perimysium
surrounding the entire muscle merge at the ends of the muscle to form the tendon that attaches the muscle to the bone epimysium
though, fibrous tissue that does not allow for expansion. It surrounds several muscles of an area. this is what you would use a foam roller for to release it to allow muscle growth fascia
Sarcolemma stands for Cell membrane
the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the cell is called.... the function of this is to store calcium ions until they are needed Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
muscle fiber is a bundle of what? myofibrils
what are myofybrils composed of? A series of repeated functional units called Sarcomeres running end to end
What is formed at the end of a sarcomere? z lines
looks like a double chain of beads twisted together actin
resembles athread running through the actin chain. it covers the active sites on tactin where myosin molecules could grab hold tropomyosin
a small protein attached to tropomyosin troponin
a muscle cell can be stimulated by a nerve to contract excitability
when the stimulation from the nerve moves quickly along the length of the muscle cell conductivity
when a muscle cell can shorten with force. muscles can only pull; they cannot push contractility
when a muscle cell can be stretched extensibility
when a muscle cell is stretched it will return to its original shape elasticity
excitability, conductivity, contractility, elasticity the 4 physiological characteristics of muscle tissue
two types of contractions isotonic and isometric
when the tension in the muscle stays constant and motion was the result of this. EX punching someone in the face Isotonic contraction
When the tension of muscles has increased without moving the arm EX flexing Isometric
The central nervous system The peripheral Nervous system the two main divisions of the nervous system
this nervous system serves as the main processing center and is composed of the brain and spinal cord CNS
this nervous system is a network of all the nerves in the body That sends messages to and from the central processing center. it is composed of nerves carrying messages in two different directions EX Peripheral vision, I see all PNS
two directions of message carriers afferent efferent
sensory neurons carry these INCOMING MESSAGES to the brain or spinal cord EX I sense you are coming WHAT DIRECTION IS THIS CALLED? Afferent
Motor neurons carry outgoing messages away from the brain and spinal cord EX motor on out Efferent
the divisions of motor neurons Somatomotor division autonomic division
the afferent messages that travel on motor neurons to stimulate skeletal muscles to move the body Somatomotor divison
the other efferent messages that travel to glands, the cardiac muscle of the heart, or the smooth muscle of hollow organs and blood cells autonomic division
sends electrical messages to prepare the body for physical activity such as fight or flight. sympathetic division
sends electrical messages to carry out functions such as digestion, defecation, and urination parasympathetic division
this organ plays a central role in the control of most bodily functions including awareness, movements, sensations, thoughts, speech, and memory brain
this fluid surrounds the brain and the spinal cord cerebrospinal fluid
two channel proteins sodium and potassium
this fluid is outside of the neuron extracellular fluid
this fluid is inside the neuron intracellular
when the outside is positive and inside is negative polarized
when the positive sodium flows into the cell, the difference in charge across the membrane changes depolarization
an opening of potassium channels follows at a slightly slower rate to allow the flow of potassium ions to the Extracellular fluid which then does what to the membrane repolarizes
SODIUM is pumped out oft he cell through active transport. when the resting membrane potential is restores, the neuron is ready to begin again with another nerve impulse. WHAT DEVICE DOES THIS **EX a middle aged man working a dead end office job sodium potassium pump
WHAT IS THE first half of local potential *DENDRITE is stimulated by flow of energy *SODIUM CHANNEL on DENDRITE MEMBRANE opens *SODIUM rushes in once channel opens and SPREADS EVERYWHERE after sodium has their moment... *POTASSIUM channels open for repolarization
*SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP actively transports the SODIUM OUT AGAIN *THIS RESTORES RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL local potential
The flow of electricity along an axon of a neuron in one direction from the trigger zone to the synaptic knob all or nothing effect doesn't decrease with distance not reversible goes through the full extent of the axon Action potential
what are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system CNS PNS
BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD STRUCTURE BELONGING TO THE CNS
SENSORY OR AFFERENT NEURONS, AND MOTOR OR EFFERENT NEURONS STRUCTURES OF THE PNS
INCOMING MESSAGES AFFERENT
SESORY NEURONS, CARRY IMPULSES FROM THE BODY TO THE SPINAL CORD OR BRAIN. SENSORY NERUONS
OUTGOING MESSAGES EFFERENT
CARRY IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD TO THE BODY MOTOR NEURONS
SOMATOMOTOR AUTONOMIC DIVISIONS OF MOTOR NEURONS
STIMULATES THE SKELETAL MUSCLE TO MOVE THE BODY SOMATOMOTOR
STIMULATION OF THE GLANDS, CARDIAC MUSCLE OF THE HEART, OR SMOOTH MUSCLE OF HOLLOW ORGANS AND BLOOD VESSELS AUTONOMIC
PARASYMPATHETIC SYMPATHETIC AUTONIMIC SYSTEM
SENDS ELECTRICAL MESSAGES TO CARRY OUT FUNCTIONS SUCH AS DIGESTION, DEFECATION, AND URINATION. PARASYMPATHETIC
SENDS ELECTRICAL MESSAGES TO PREPARE THE BODY FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SYMPATHETIC
WHAT ARE THE 2 CHANNEL PROTIENS POTASSIUM SODIUM
ATTRACTED TO LARGE NEGATIVE IONS, LOCATED WITHIN THE CELL MEMBRANE IN THE INTRACELLULAR FLUID POTASSIUM LOCATION
LOCATED OUTSIDE THE CELL MEMBRANE IN THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID SODIUM LOCATION
THE ECF OUTSIDE THE CELL MEMBRANE IS POSITIVELY CHARGED AND THE ICF INSIDE THE CELL MEMBRANE IS NEGATIVELY CHARGED. CALLED RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL, BECAUSE THERE IS POTENTIAL FOR A FLOW OF CHARGES POLARIZATION
DIFFERENCE IN CHARGE ACROSS THE MEMBRANE HAS CHANGED DUE TO THE FLOW OF SODIUM INTO THE ICF DEPOLARIZATION
POTASSIUM CHANNELS OPEN TO ALLOW POTASSIUM TO FLOW OUTSIDE THE CELL MEMBRANE INTO THE ECF REPOLARIZATION
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP RESPONSIBLE FOR RE-ESEBLISHING AND MAINTAINING THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL BY PUMPING SODIUM OUT OF THE CELL AGAIN THROUGH ACTIVE TRANSPORT.
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY ENDOCRINE GLAND THE HYPOTHALAMUS REGULATES THE PITUITARY GLAND
DERIVED FROM A CHOLESTEROL MOLECULE LIPIDS CAN PASS THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES CAN BE ABSORBEDD THROUGH THE SKIN STEROIDS
A MOLECULE GENERATED USING AN AMINO ACID AS A STARTING POINT NOT ALL WILL GET INCORPERATED INTO PROTEINS SOME ARE BUILDING BLOCKS OR STARTER MOLECULES AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES
MADE UP OF AMINO ACID CHAINS SUCH AS INSULIN TOO LARGE TO PASS TRHOUGH THTE CELL MEMBRAIN MUST BE INJECTED PROTEINS
NOT SECRETED AT A CONSTANT RATE BUT WHEN THERE IS A NEED SECRETION IS USUALLY RESULTED BY NEGATIVE FEEDBACK REGULATION IS POSSITIVE FEEDBACK CONTROLS SELF-PERPETUATING EVENTS LIKE CHILD BIRTH HORMONES
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF 4 COMPONENTS. NAME THEM GLANDS, HORMONES, TARGET TISSUES, AND RECEPTORS
NAME THE THREE CATEGORIES OF HORMONES STEROIDS, AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES, PROTEINS
A GROUP OF LIPIDS COMPOSITION OF PROSTAGLANDINS
WHY ARE PROSTAGLANDINS MANUFACTURED? BECAUSE ITS THE BODYS WAY OF DEALING WITH INJURY AND ILLNESS
INFLAMMATION BLOOD FLOW FORMATION OF BLOOD CLOTS INDUCTION OF LABOUR PROCESSES CONTROLLED BY PROGLANDINS
HOW ARE PROSTAGLANDINS DIFFERENT FROM HORMONES NOT SECRETED FROM A GLAND
NOT CARRIED IN THE BLOODSTREAM TO WORK ON SPECIFIC AREAS AROUND THE BODY CAN BE MADE IN NEARLY ALL THE ORGANS IN THE BODY HOW PROSTAGLANDINS DIFFER FROM HORMONES
NEURAL STIMULATION ANOTHER HORMONE STIMULATING THE GLAND A SUBSTANCE OTHER THAN A HORMONE STIMULATING A GLAND 3 WAYS HORMONES ARE SECRETED BY THE BODY
WHERE ARE THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS LOCATED THE HYPOTHALAMUS IS CONNECTED TO THE PITUITARY GLAND BY THE INFUNDIBULUM
THIS SYSTEM IS SLOWER AND MORE GENERAL AS TO TARGET TISSUE ENDOCRINE SYTEM
CAN BE STOPPED FAST NERVOUS SYSTEM
EPINEPHRINE IS MADE FROM AMINO ACIDS INSULIN IS A PROTEIN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HORMONES
STEROIDS PROTEINS AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES HORMONES
WHERE ARE RECEPTORS LOCATED ON THE CELL MEMBRANE IN THE CYTOPLASM
HOW IS THE LOCATION OF THE RECEPTOR DETERMINED IT IS DETERMINED BY THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE HORMONE
A HORMONE THAT WORKS ON THE SAME TISSUE THAT PRODUCED IT AUTOCRINE
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM WITH AGING *SOME HORMONES CONTINUES TO BE PRODUCED IN HIGH LEVELS THROUGHOUT LIFE *TARGET TISSUES TEND TO DOWN-REGULATE WITH AGE *IN GENERAL, HORMONE LEVELS DIMINISH WITH AGE. *THE EFFECTS OF SOME HORMONES ARE DIMINISHED
HOW ARE HORMONES ELIMINATED FROM THE SYSTEMS *THEY CAN EXCRETED BY THE LIVER *THEY CAN BE EXCRETED BY THE KIDNEYS. *THEY CAN BE METABOLIZED BY THE TARGET TISSUE *THEY CAN BE ACTIVELY TRANSPORTED TO THE GLAND THAT PRODUCED THEM.
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM *PATCHES OF CELLS IN THE STOMACH THAT MAKE CHEMICALS TO COMMUNICATE WITH NEARBY CELLS *NUCLEI IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS *PANCREATIC ISLETS *GONADS
Created by: tmacphee114647