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unit 3

unit 3 flashcards

What are the five different types of bones? long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid.
Periosteum: outer enclosure of bone which is continuous with tendons and ligaments blood vessels; contains its own blood supply
Epiphysis: ends of bone which is made up of spongy bone and compact bone. (covered in articular cartilage)
Diaphysis: middle or body of bone
What is the difference between compact and spongy bone? compact bone is cortical bone and is found on the outside layers of a bone. spongy bone is cancellous bone and is found inside a bone.
Osteocytes? Osteoclasts? Osteoblasts? Osteocytes are bone cells that make up bone tissue. Osteoclasts break down bone tissue. Osteoblasts are bone building cells.
Stage 1 of Bone Fracture Healing; ACUTE: bleeding, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, hematoma forms blood clot, fibrocartilage callus begins tissue repair. lasts about 4 days.
Stage 2 of Bone Fracture Healing: REPAIR: osteoclasts and osteoblasts continue to work. fibrous callus forms as a splint forms on the inside and outside of bone. takes about 6 weeks to complete.
Stage 3 of Bone Fracture Healing: REMODELING: callus is reabsorbed and replaced with a fibrous cord of bone around fracture site. takes several years to complete
Is a fracture a break? YES!!!
Collagen: strong, fibrous material with slight stretch. Dense and slightly extensible.
Elastin: very elastic (stretchy) material
Extensibility: the ability to stretch
Elasticity: the ability to return to normal length after being stretched
skin layers: 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Hypodermis
Muscle: is both extensible and elastic. 3 types: smooth,, cardiac, and skeletal. while one muscle contracts the other relaxes. very elastic
Tendons: connect muscle to bone. inelastic
Ligaments: connect bone to bone. semi-elastic
Stage 1 of Soft Tissue Healing: ACUTE RESPONSE/ REACTION: bleeding, fibroblasts, fibroclasts. lasts about 2 days.
Stage 2 of Soft Tissue Healing: REPAIR & REGENERATION: skin rebuilds new tissue with scar tissue, the scar tissue is fibrous, inelastic, and non-vascular; making it less strong than the original material. lasts about 6-8 weeks.
Stage 3 of Soft Tissue Healing: REMODELING: scar tissue becomes stronger and more elastic, fibroblasts continue to work. lasts up to a year to heal completely.
What is the difference between an open and closed fracture? an open fracture is when the bone has gone through the skin. a closed fracture is when the bone is inside the skin (skin is not open).
What is the difference between a displaced and non-displaced fracture? a displaced fracture is when the bone has shifted out of alignment. a non-displaced fracture is when the bone has NOT shifted out of alignment.
types of fractures part 1: greenstick fracture: looks like a broken tree branch transverse fracture: straight across fracture oblique fracture: diagonal fracture
types of fractures part 2: comminuted fracture: when the bone breaks in 3 or more places impacted fracture: when the broken ends of the bone are jammed together
What is the difference between a sprain and a strain? a sprain occurs with ligaments and bones and strains occurs with tendons and muscles.
Contusion (bruise): blow to the body
What is the difference between afferent nerves and efferent nerves? afferent nerves transmit info from the skin, muscle, tendons, and ligaments. efferent nerves transmit control signals to the muscles from the brain.
What are the 3 nerve injury symptoms? Hypoesthesia: reduced sensation Hyperesthesia: heightened sensation Paresthesia: numbness, tingling, pickling
types of joints: Synarthrosis: an immoveable joint, skull, pelvis Amphiarthrosis: slightly moveable joint, vertebrae Diarthrosis: freely moveable joint: shoulder, carpals, meta carpals, elbow, knee
Created by: madisonpetko