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Chronic hyperglycemia d/t inadequate insulin secretion and/or the body resists the effects of insulin. Diabetes Mellitus
What are the 3 functions of insulin? -carry glucose into the cells for energy -help the liver store glycogen -inhibit glycogen breakdown into glucose
What is responsible for the production of insulin? Beta cells in the pancreas.
Incidence of diabetes is higher among: African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans
What is the 7th leading cause of death in the US? Diabetes Mellitus
What form of diabetes results in a total absence of insulin production and is dx during childhood and adolescents? Type 1
Type 2 diabetes results from: a decreased sensitivity to insulin or an insufficient production of insulin
What are the 3 symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes? polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
What is an elevated blood glucose level classified as? hyperglycemia
What is polyuria? increased urination
Impaired fasting glucose 100-125 after an overnight fast
Impaired glucose tolerance 140-199 after glucose tolerance test lasting 2 hours
What is polydipsia? increased thirst
S/S of hyperglycemia: hunger, drowsiness, blurred vision
What is polyphagia? increased hunger
What are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes? gestational diabetes, race, family hx, hx of smoking, inactivity, obesity, HTN
Name two types of rapid acting insulin. insulin aspart, insulin lispro
What is the onset, peak and duration of rapid acting insulin? Onset-15-30 min Peak-0.5-2.5 hours Duration-3-6 hours
When should rapid acting insulin be given? Right before a meal. Food should be readily available to the pt.
What is short acting insulin? regular insulin
What is the onset, peak and duration of short acting insulin? onset- 0.5-1 hour peak- 1-5 hours duration- 6-10 hours
What is the onset, peak and duration of intermediate acting (NPH) insulin? Onset- 1-2 hours Peak- 6-14 hours Duration- 16-24 hours
What type of insulin can be given IV? Short Acting (regular)
What is the onset, peak and duration of long acting insulin? Onset- 70 min Peak- none Duration- 18-24 hours
To ensure safety what should always be done prior to administration of insulin? Check the type and order for insulin with another nurse.
Rapid acting and short acting insulin should never be given without ________? food
What are the 3 types of sulfonylureas? glipizide, glimepiride, and glyburide
Biguanide Metformin
TZDs Pioglitazone
Megglitinides Repaglinide
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Acarbose
Gliptins sitagliptan
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors canaglifozin
What are the s/s of Hypoglycemia? lighteheaded, shaky, anxious, dizzy, diaphoresis, drowsy, confused
Poor glycemic control increases the risk for: MI, CVA, HTN, diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and nephropathy
Acute, life-threatening condition characterized by hyperglycemia with blood glucose levels greater than 300. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Blood sugar greater than 600, often caused by serious illness. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)
What is the accepted HbA1c range for diabetics? 6.5-8%
How long before using iodine-containing contrast should a pt discontinue the use of metformin? 48 hours
What are possible side effects from TZDs? fluid retention, bladder cancer, fractures in females, hepatotoxicity
When should acarbose be taken? with the first bite of a meal
Why should metformin be stopped prior to the use of iodine-containing contrast? reduce the risk of acute renal failure
Created by: AmandaSwopes