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Chapter 14

The Respiratory System 14.1-14.2

Primary Function Gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Inspiration/Expiration Breathing in/breathing out
Four Respiratory Actions 1) Pulmonary ventilation 2) External respiration 3) Internal respiration 4) Transport of gases to and from lungs/tissue
Mucociliary escalator The bodies use of ciliated tissue to direct mucous/contaminates toward the throat so they can be swallowed.
Parts of upper respiratory tract Nasal cavities, pharynx, glottis, and larynx
Parts of lower respiratory tract Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, alveoli, and pulmonary capillaries
Nostrils The two external openings in the nose.
Nasal cavities The spaces in the nose that are separated by a central septum.
Nasal conchae Ridges found inside of the nasal cavity to increase surface area.
Pharynx The funnel-shaped passageway that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx. Three parts: laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, and the oropharynx.
Larynx Noted by the Adam's apple, the larynx contains the vocal cords. The space between the vocal cords is known as the glottis.
Epiglottis The flap of cartilage that covers glottis/larynx when food is swallowed.
Trachea (Windpipe) The tube connecting the larynx to the primary bronchi. The trachea is supported by C-shaped cartilage rings.
Bronchi The passageways that lead to the right or left lungs.
Bronchioles Smaller passageways that branch off of bronchi. The bronchioles lead to the alveoli.
Alveoli Small sacs or air pockets that are the site of gas exchange.
Pulmonary capillaries Capillaries that surround alveoli to allow for gas exchange to occur.
Pleurae The double layer serous membrane that covers each lung. These layers reduce friction between the lungs and the thoracic cavity.
Surfactant A lipoprotein layer that reduced surface tension to ensure that lungs can return to their normal shape.
Created by: Mr.Klein