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Chapter 13

Inflammatory reactions and body defences

Inflammatory Reaction Caused when body tissue is damaged by physical or chemical agents or through pathogens entering the body.
Steps of inflammatory reaction 1) Histamine release, area swells 2) Local swelling causes nerve endings to sense pain 3) Blood clot forms to prevent blood loss 4) Leukocytes enter area to kill pathogens 5) Monocytes become macrophages to kill pathogens and stimulate immune response
Pus A white material full of dead bacteria, dead cell tissue, and white blood cells. Pus is produced as a result of the immune system functioning.
Antigens Parts of a bacteria or virus after the bacteria or virus has been killed. Antigen can be used by the body to better the immune systems's defenses.
Natural Killer Cells Cells that kill virus infected cells and tumor cells. These cells are non specific and will kill any infected or abnormal cell.
Interferon Interferon is a protein made by infected cells. Interferon interacts with non-infected cells to give a warning about the presence of a pathogen or virus.
B-lymphocytes Cells that mature in the red bone marrow. B-lymphocytes produce antibodies as the result of an infection. Memory B-cells are made to serve as long term immunity to a specific pathogen.
Antibodies A Y-shaped molecule that has antigen binding sites. These binding sites attach to antigens or toxins to neutralize them.
Classes of antibodies IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE. IgG antibodies are the major antibodies found in the blood.
Antigen-presenting cells These are large cells that present antigens to T-cells to initiate a body response.
Cytotoxic T-Cells These leukocytes destroy virus infected cells or cancer cells by injecting digestive enzymes into the infected cells.
Helper T-Cells These cells secrete cytokines. Cytokines stimulate other immune cells to begin their function. The HIV/AIDS virus infects helper T-cells causing the body to have a limited immune response.
Memory T-Cells These cells contain antigens that "remember" how to respond when an antigen appears again. How our immune system works after getting a flu shot.
Created by: Mr.Klein