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Chapter 1

Biology study of life
Living things perform: responsivenessGrowthreproduction movement metabolism
Anatomy structure
Physiology function
Gross Anatomy macroscopic ; visible w/ unaided eye
Surface Anatomy general form and superficial markings
Regional Anatomy considers all superficial and internal features in specific region of body
Systemic Anatomy structures of major organs
Microscopic Anatomy structures that cannot be seen without magnification
Cytology analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
Histology examines tissues ,groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific function
Organs tissues form to make these
Human Physiology study of the functions of the human body
Cell physiology study of functions of living cells
Special Physiology study of physiology of specific organs
Systemic Physiology considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems
Pathological Physiology or pathology study of effects of diseaseson organ or system functions
Level of Organization Chemical (molecular)CellularTissueOrgan Organ systemOrganism
Homeostasis existence of stable internal enviroment
Homostatic regulation adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis
Receptor sensitive to a particular enviroment change or stimulus
Control Center integration center recieves and processes info from receptor
Effector responds to commands of the control center and whose activity opposes and reinforces the stimulus
Negative Feedback variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation
Positive Feedback initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus
Disease When homeostasis regulation fails, organ systems begin to malfunction and the individual experiences the symptoms of illness
Anatomical Position feet together hands at sides with palms forward
Supine face down
Prone Face down
Anterior front
Ventral belly side
Posterior back
Dorsal back
Cranial Head
superior above;higher level
Caudal tail
inferior Below;lowest level
medial toward body
Lateral away from body
proximal toward attached base
distal away from attached base
superficial close to body surface
deep farther from body surface
Sagittal right/ left sides
Mid sagittal half right/left sides
Frontal/ coronal anterior/posterior sides
Transverse Horizontal superior/inferior portions
Ventral Cavity (coelem) stomach side true body cavity; respitory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive
Diaphragm seperarates thoracic and abdominalpelvic cavities
Visecera internal organs
Serous Membrane lines internal organs
Pericardial Cavity "balloon" around heart
Pericardium serous membrane around heart
visceral pericardium layer covering heart
parietal pericardium opposing surface of viceral pericardium
Mediastrum pericardium lies within
Pleural Cavity surronds lung
Pleura serous membrane around lungs
Abdominal Cavity liver, stomach, spleen, small and most of large intestine
Pelvic Cavity distal portion of large intestine,urinary bladder, various reporductive organs
Peritoneal cavity chamber lined by serous membrane known of peritoneum
Dorsal Cavity posterior cranial and spinal cavities
Ventral Cavity Thoracic ( pericardial and 2 pleura) and Abdominal Pelvic
Created by: twlightgirl92