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A&P HW CH 12


Under what classification does multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar neurons go under? Structural classification
Under what classification does sensory, motor, interneuron, afferent, efferent, and association neuron go under? Functional classification
List the structures in which an electrical impulse would travel beginning with the post-synaptic membrane. Dendrites, soma, axon hillock, internode, node of ranvier, terminal aborization, and synaptic knobs
T / F ? Graded potentials can result from voltage across the plasma membrane True
T / F ? Graded potentials can result from mechanical stimulation or temperature changes. True
T / F ? The potential change can vary from small to large depending on the stimulus strength or summation True
T / F ? The effects produced by one graded potential can be added onto the effects of another graded potential True
T / F ? Increased permeability of the membrane to sodium results in depolarization. True
T / F ? A depolarizing graded potential can cause an action potential. True
Classify what goes under excitatory neurotransmitter actions - Binds to a chemically gated sodium channel - Sodium moves down concentration gradient into the neuron - The inside of neuron becomes more positive
Classify what goes under inhibitory neurotransmitter actions - Binds to a chemically gated potassium channel - Binds to a chemically gated chloride channel - Potassium moves down its concentration gradient out of neuron - Chloride moves down its concentration gradient into the neuron
What is the order for EPSP from beginning to end? - Excitatory neurotransmitter released from presynaptic neuron - Neurotransmitter binds to chemically gated sodium channels - Sodium channels open; Sodium flows into neuron - Inside of neuron becomes more positive - EPSP propagates toward axon hillock
What is the order of IPSP from beginning to end? - An inhibitory neurotransmitter binds to chemically gated K+ channels - K+ channels open - K + flows out of neuron - Inside of neuron becomes more negative - IPSP propagates toward axon hillock
What glial cell forms the myelin sheath in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes
What glial cell has the function in the production and circulation of CSF? Ependymal cells
What glial cells has macrophages of the CNS? Microglia
What is the msot abundant CNS glial cells? Astrocytes
What glial cell is involved with neurogenesis, scar formation, and BBB maintenance? Astrocytes
What glial cell forms the myelin sheath in the PNS? Neurolemmocytes
What is the name of the PNS cells that surround and insulate the somas? Satellite cells
What are the components of the peripheral nerve in a sequence from outside to inside? Epineurium --> Nerve --> Pernieurium --> Fascicles --> Endoneurium --> Neurolemmocytes --> Axolemma
Classify the given items into what classification: - Based upon the CNS component nerve arises from; would include spinal nerves Structural classification
Classify the given items into what classification: - based upon direction information is sent; would include sensory, motor, and mixed nerves. Functional Classification
Where are phosphate, negatively charged proteins, and potassium more abundant? Cytosol or ISF? Cytosol
Where are sodium and chloride more abundant? Cytosol or ISF? ISF
Relative Refractory Period Occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels have returned to resting state; Ensures that the action potential moves down the axon in only one direction; neuron is hyperpolarized
Absolute Refractive Period Occurs 1ms after an action potential; no amount of stimulus will initiate a second action potential; Voltage-gated sodium channels are opened then closed in the inactivated state
If neurotransmitter from Neuron A causes Neuron B to hyperpolarize, this is an example of what? Inhibitory postsynatpic potential
The most common type of neuron contains many dendrites and a single axon. Structurally, this is classified as a(n) Multipolar neuron
Scorpion agitoxin is a neurotoxin that blocks the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels. In the presence of agitoxin, which will occur during an action potential? The neuron will remain depolarized and unable to repolarize.
Nerve growth factors that stimulate outgrowth of severed axons are secreted by neurolemmocytes.
Which part of a neuron contains calcium pumps and channels? Synaptic bulbs
The ___________ nervous system transmits information from receptors to the CNS, while the ___________ nervous system transmits information from the CNS to the rest of the body. sensory; motor
A typical synapse in the CNS consists of a presynaptic neuron and a postsynaptic neuron, separated by a narrow space called the synaptic cleft.
Myelin sheaths mainly consist of which part of the glial cells that form them? plasma membranes
What type of cells produce the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS)? Oligodendrocytes
When threshold is reached, depolarization occurs with the same amplitude of potential change. This is known as the All-or-None principle.
The _______ is a period of time when a membrane cannot respond to another stimulus (no matter how strong). absolute refractory period
What is the correct order for the events of neurotransmitter release from the synaptic terminal AFTER the action potential reaches the axon terminal and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open? Action potential reaches axon terminal,Ca2+ channels open, Ca2+ enters terminal and binds to sensor protein in the cytoplasm,Ca2+-protein complex stimulates fusion of the docked synaptic vesicle with the membrane, transmitter into synaptic cell
The fundamental physiological properties that enable nerve cells to communicate with other cells are ability to respond to environmental changes, produce electrical signals that are quickly conducted to other cells at distant locations, and to secrete a chemical that will stimulate the next cell when an electrical signal reaches the end of an axon
Pain receptors in the skin send signals to the CNS for processing. These pain receptors are an example of ____________ neurons. afferent
Neurons that carry signals from the CNS to skeletal muscle for contraction would be classified as _____________ neurons. efferent
The vagus nerve contains afferent and efferent neurons, therefore it is an example of a(n) __________ nerve. mixed
If all the sodium leakage channels were removed from the cell membrane of a neuron, the membrane potential would be about -90 millivolts.
When sodium enters the neuron via chemically gated sodium channels, the membrane will depolarize. Therefore, the membrane potential will become more positive
When sodium enters the neuron via chemically gated sodium channels, the membrane will depolarize. Therefore, the membrane potential will become more positive.
On a graph of an action potential, the small depolarizations that lead to threshold are from excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs).
EPSP Result the sodium channels open and sodium ions pour into the intracellular fluid.
T/F ? The inflow of sodium ions into the intracellular fluid causes depolarization of the neuron's inner cell membrane. True
An inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) will do what? will make the membrane potential of a neuron's inner cell membrane more negative.
An inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) will make the membrane potential of a neuron's inner cell membrane more negative.
An excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) will make the membrane potential of a neuron's inner cell membrane more positive.
An EPSP will cause both sodium and potassium gates to open, allowing sodium to diffuse into the cell and potassium to diffuse out of the cell.
Depolarization of a cell membrane occurs because more sodium ions diffuse into the cell than potassium ions diffuse out of it.
Depolarization is initiated by a stimulus that makes the membrane potential more positive.
T/F ? The inside of the cell membrane becomes negative at the time of an action potential. False
A recently depolarized area of a cell membrane cannot generate an action potential because of the absolute refractory period.
T/F ? On a typical neuron, the axon is usually longer in length than the dendrites. True
T/F? The endoneurium wraps around groups of fasicles to form a nerve. False
T/F ? In neurons, protein pumps allow substances to move passively down their concentration gradients. False
T/F ? Sodium has a higher concentration outside the cell than within. True
T/F ? Greater current flow is possible with larger resistance and a lower voltage. False
T/F ? The leakage of potassium plays a more significant role in the resting membrane potential than the leakage of sodium. True
T/F? Postsynaptic neurons can generate both inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials simultaneously. True
Created by: elizabethcosio
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