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Lab 47 & 48

A&P Lab 47 & 48 Blood vessels and Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate

The sudden surge of blood that enters the arteries each time the ventricles of the heart contract (systole) causes what? The elastic walls of these vessels to expand
As ventricles relax (diastole), what happens? The arterial walls recoil
How are the alternating expanding and recoiling of an arterial wall be felt as? Palpated (felt) as a pulse in any vessel that is near the surface of of body
What does the number of pulse expansions per minute correlates with? The heart rate of cardiac cycles.
What is the left ventricles? The systemic pumping chamber, and it is therefore responsible for the pulse wave and for the blood pressure in the arteries selected for these assessments.
What creates blood pressure? The force exerted by the blood pressing against the inner walls of arteries.
What is systolic pressure? The systemic arterial pressure reaches its maximum during contraction of the left ventricle
What is diastolic pressure? When the blood pressure drops to its lowest level because the left ventricle relaxes when it fills with blood again.
How is blood pressure expressed as? As a systolic pressure over diastolic pressure
What is a normal resting pressure? 120/80 mm Hg or slightly lower
What is hypertension? If pressures during resting conditions are too high
What is hypotension? If pressure are too low during resting conditions
What is the difference between the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure? The pulse pressure
What does the pulse pressure indicate? The force exerted upon the arteries from ventricular contraction and indicates general condition of the cardiovascular system
What would an expanded pulse pressure indicate? Atherosclerosis and hypertension
When is blood pressure established by the heart no longer sufficient to return blood to the heart via the veins? After blood passed through the capillaries.
What do the skeletal muscle pump of the limbs and the respiratory pump of the torso assist in? Venous return.
What do the difference in pressure between the abdominopelvic cavity and the thoracic cavity assist in? The movement of blood into the veins of the thoracic cavity and back into the heart. Result: more blood enters the heart and heart rate increases to pump additional blood.
When does less blood enter the heart? During expiration, since the thoracic cavity volume decreases and its pressure increases.
In what ways do the strength of the pulse gives indication of blood pressure? Under high blood pressure, pulse feels hard and strong; Under low blood pressure, pulse feels weak and easily compressed
What is cardiac output? The volume of blood discharged from a ventricle in a minute.
What is the stroke volume? The blood ejected from a single ventricle contraction (70 mL)
If either heart rate or stroke volume increases, what happens to cardiac output and blood pressure? Cardiac output would increase as would blood pressure.
What influences blood pressure? Blood volume. Because blood pressure is directly proportional to blood volume, any volume change can alter blood pressure.
What does peripheral resistance refers to? The amount of friction between the blood and the walls of the blood vessels.
What are some things that can aggravate blood pressure? Obesity, excess salt intake, inactive lifestyle, stress, smoking, medications, etc.
What do blood vessels form? A closed system of tubes that carry blood to and from the heart, lungs, and body cells.
What are the tubes that conduct blood AWAY from the heart? Arteries and arterioles
What are the tubes in which exchanges of substances occur between the blood and surrounding tissues? Capillaries
What are the tubes that return blood to the heart? Veins and venules
What is the inner layer of the arteries and veins? Turnica interna
What is the turnica interna composed of? An endothelium of simple squamous epithelial cells and the basement membrane to establish a smooth lining next to the lumen of the blood vessel.
What is the middle layer of the arteries and veins? Turnica media
What is the turnica media composed of? Smooth muscle
What does the turnica media do? From various contractions and relaxations of the smooth muscle, the lumen size in modified, which influences the mount of blood flow through a particular area of the body
What is the outer layer of the arteries and veins? Turnica externa
What is the turnica externa? Connective tissues rich in collagen, providing some support and protection.
Why do the arteries have thicker middle and outer layers and elastic laminae? To provide additional support and elasticity to withstand the high blood pressures of arteries.
In what blood vessel had occasional valves to prevent backflow within these vessels that experience much lower pressures? Veins, which have thinner middle and outer layers
What do the capillaries that connect arterioles and venules retain? Only the endothelium and basement membrane
What are the 2 major pathways of the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system? The pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit
What happens within each circuit? Arteries transport blood away from the heart. After exchanges of gases, nutrients, and wastes have occurred between the blood and surrounding tissues, veins return the blood to the heart.
Created by: elizabethcosio



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