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Chapter 27 AP Euro

AP European Chapter 27 Vocabulary

Balkan Wars Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War in 1913 Austria intervened to stop the war. These wars were mostly territorial and were a precursor to World War I.
Berlin Conference, 1885 Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.
Black Hand Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society founded in 1911. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.
Conscription Forced recruitment of civilians into the army to meet the needs of war.
Charles I (1887-1922) Last Austrian Emperor abdicated Nov. 1918. The next day Austria was declared a Republic as was Hungary
Entente Cordiale (1904) Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Isolationism Not becoming involved in global or regional events.
Joseph Joffre French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne in 1914.
Kaiser William II Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck’s treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
Kruger Telegram 1896, William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. Alerted Britain of the dangers from Germany.
V. I. Lenin Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
League of Nations Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, 1919, precursor to the United Nations.
Lusitania Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Battle of the Marne A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
Morocco Crisis, 1911 After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
Nicholas II the last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.
Gavrilo Princip The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
Treaty of Versailles Negotiated by the Big Three Germany stripped of colonies(Alsace and Loraine given to France.)Poland was reconstituted,Polish corridor split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years.Heavy repercussions( specified later)
Battle of Verdun 1916 German assault on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition France won.
Triple Entente 1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Wilson’s Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
Woodrow Wilson U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
Zimmerman Telegram German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. telegram was intercepted and decoded by British, shocked the American public.
Army Order #1 Issued by the Petrograd Soviet shipped offices of their authority and placed the power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
Bloody Sunday In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
Bolsheviks "Majority group"
Cheka Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
Decembrist Revolt Uprising in Russia mainly soldiers soon suppressed-first manifestation of the modern revolutionary movement inspired by ideology.
Fyodor Dostoevsky Russian novelist.
Duma Popular parliament.
Fundamental Laws Issued by the Russian Government in 1906. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.
Alexander Kerensky Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
General Kornilov Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup-demanded the resignation of all ministers Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.
Kronstadt Revolt Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.
March Revolution Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia.
Mensheviks 'Minority group'.
Mir Peasant village assembly responsible to the government.
October Manifesto Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
"Peace, Bread, and Land" Lenin’s slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
Created by: mr.bradley