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Muscular System Famy

Muscle Cells Muscle Fibers
Buttocks Gluteus Maximus
Chest Muscle Pectoral Muscle
The 3 types of Muscle Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Location of Skeletal Muscle Attached to bones, but some facial muscles to the skin
Skeletal Muscle Appearance Single, very long, cylindrical, multi-nucleated cells with very obvious striations
Location of Cardiac Muscle Walls of the heart
Cardiac Muscle Appearance Branching Chains of cells, one nucleus a cell, striated, they have intercalated discs
Location of Smooth Muscle Mostly in walls of hollow visceral organs (other than the heart)
Smooth Muscle Appearance Single, tapered at both end, one nucleus a cell, no striations
Another name for Skeletal Muscle Striated Muscle
Occipitofrontalis Raises the Eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi Closes the eyelids
Orbicularis oris Puckers the lips
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus Smiling Muscles
Levator labii superioris Sneering
Depressor anguli oris Frowning
Mastication Chewing
How many pairs of mastication muscles? 4
How many pairs of Pterygoids? 2
Where is your temporalis? on the side of head where temples reside
Where is your masseter? on the bottom side corner of the jaw
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles Change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles Move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid Lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Platysma Sheet like muscle covering the anterolateral neck
Contractility Ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability The capacity of the muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility The ability to be stretched
Elasticity The ability to recoil back to original resting length after being stretched
Epimysium Surrounds each skeletal muscle, connective tissue sheath
Fascia Located outside the epimysium, connective tissue sheath, surrounds and separates muscles
Fasciculi (Fascicle) one of numerous visible bundles that the muscle is composed of
Perimysium surrounds the muscle fascicle
Endomysium what muscle fibers are surrounded by
Myofibrils threadlike structure extending from one end of muscle cell(fiber) to another
Actin and Myosin the 2 major proteins that myofibrils consist of
Actin Thin Myofilaments
Myosin Thick Myofilaments
Sarcomeres Highly ordered units formed by Actin and Myosin
Sarcomere Basic structural and functional unity of the muscle
Positively Charged Outside of most cell membranes
Negatively Charged Inside of most cell membranes
Resting Membrane Potential The charge difference across the cell membrane
Action Potential Brief reversal back of the muscles charge
Motor Neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Axons Enter the muscle and branch
Neuromuscular Junction Formed by each branch connecting to the muscle, formed near center of cell
Synapse Neuromuscular Junction
Motor Unit Single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
Many motor units form a Single muscle
How is a neuromuscular junction formed By an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane
Presynaptic Terminal The enlarged nerve terminal
Synaptic Cleft Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
Postsynaptic Terminal Muscle cell in a neuromuscular junction
Synaptic Vesicles Contained in each presynaptic terminal, these things secrets a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter secreted by synaptic vesicles
Actions of Acetylcholine Diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
Acetylcholinesterase Breaks down Acetylcholine
Occurs when Actin and Myosin slide past each other Muscle Contractions
Sarcomeres shorten during Muscle contractions
Sliding Filament Mechanism The sliding of Actin and Myosin past each other during contraction
Which bands shorten during contraction The H and I bands
What bands stay the same during contraction The A band
Muscle Twitch Contraction of entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
Threshold The point a muscle fiber has to reach or it will not react to a stimulus
All-or-none response the process involving the threshold
Lag Phase Time between application of the stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
Contraction Phase The time of contraction
Relaxation Phase The time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany Where the muscles remain contracted without relaxing
Recruitment The increase in the number of motor units being activated
Isometric Length of muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
Isotonic The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
Created by: joshuacline