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chapter 6 muscles

contractility shorten with force
excitability respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity recoil back to resting length
fascia located outside of the epimysium
epimysium connective tissue sheath that covers the skeletal muscle
fascicle/fasciculi numerous bundle of muscles
perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds the fascicle
fibers (muscles fibers) single muscle cell
myofibrils thread-like structure that expands from one end of the fiber to the other
endomysium each fiber in a connective tissue
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
sarcomeres units the make up actin and myosin myofilaments
myofibrils actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments
sarcomere basic structural
resting membrane potential charge distance across the membrane
action potential brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction/synapse each branch that connects the muscle forms
motor unit a single motor neuron and all muscle fibers it inntervates
neuromusclular junction is formed by an enlarged nerve terminal
presynaptic terminal the enlarged never terminal
syaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynsaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles presynaptic terminal that secretes neurotransmitter
acetylcholine neurotransmitter
acetylcholinesterase the acetylcholine released is rapidly broken down by enzymes
sliding filament mechanism sliding of actin past myosin myofilaments during contration
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus in the muscles
threshold a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until it reaches a level
all-or-none response the phenomenon
lag phase time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of an contraction
contraction phase time on contraction
relexation phase time which muscles are relexed
tetany where the muscle stay contracted without relexing
recruitment an increase of motor units being activated
ATP is needed for energy for muscle contraction
ADP more stable than ATP and has phosphate
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen (more efficient)
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
muscle tone contrast tension
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant
origin most stationary end of the muscle
insertion greatest movement of the muscle
belly portion between the head and insertion
synergists muscles that work together
antagonists muscles in opposition to one another
prime mover in the synergists, where one muscles plays a major role
occipitofrontalis rasises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens cheeks
zygomaticus smiling muscle
leavator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
Created by: JustinA19



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