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Gunpowder Empires

AP Global

Gunpowder Empires. States that used guns, canons, and muskets in order to defeat enemies and collect power.
What were the Muslim Gunpowder Empires? The Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the Mughal Empire.
What were the Non-Muslim Gunpowder Empires? Russia, Ming China, Qing China, and Japan.
Founder of the Ottoman Empire. Osman.
The Gunpowder Empires were all ________ based empires. Land.
What was the historical significance of Anatolia? 1. Alexander the Great conquered it as a part of the Persian Empire 2. Romans conquered it and named it Byzantium 3. Where Constantinople was located 4 Seljuk Turks conquered it 5. Mongols conquered it 6. Ottoman Turks conquer it
When was Constantinople sacked? 1453.
How did the Ottomans change Constantinople? Changed its name to Istanbul, made it Muslim, turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque.
Suleiman the Magnificent. Conquered a large portion of Europe for the Ottomans.
Why did Suleiman the Magnificent stop his movement at Vienna in 1529? The bitter winter.
Why was Suleiman the Magnificent's stop at Vienna seen as a turning point in history? If the Ottomans had continued, they probably would have sacked the Holy Roman Empire, preventing the Age of Exploration from occurring.
What was key to Ottoman success? Their military.
Who were the Janissaries? An elite military group composed of Christian boys that defended the sultan.
What was the devshirme? The Ottoman's system that forced Christian families to give up a son and train him to become a Janissary by converting them to Islam and teaching them warfare.
How were the Janissaries so successful? They were able to use heavy artillery because they weren't on horseback.
What was a vizier? An adviser of the sultan that took care of day to day procedures.
Why didn't the Ottomans have a strong, centralized government? Viziers gained too much power, Janissaries wanted more power, fights over who would become the next sultan.
Who added "The Magnificent" to Suleiman's name? The Europeans, which shows they have a positive view towards him.
How did the Ottoman Empire become so wealthy? Constantinople was involved in a lot of trade and they conquered it.
What were the consequences of the Ottoman Empire becoming so wealthy? They over expanded.
What were the causes of the Ottoman Empire's downfall? Over expansion, corruption, peasant revolts, greedy janissaries, increased taxes.
How did the New World negatively impact the Ottoman Empire's economy? A lot of silver was found in the New World, which caused inflation.
Why did inflation affect the Ottoman Empire so greatly? It was against religious laws to moderate the taxes.
What religions composed the Ottoman Empire? Many Sunni Muslims, but expansion exposed them to Christianity and Judaism.
Why did a lot of cultural diffusion occur in Istanbul? It was the center of many trade routes and served as cross roads where many people settled.
What was the goal of the Ottoman Empire in Istanbul? To restore it to its former glory that it had before the Byzantine Empire's downfall.
How was Istanbul revamped? Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque, built aqueducts, repaired city walls, built the Suleymainye Mosque and domes.
Who composed a large amount of the population in the Ottoman Empire? Artisans and merchants.
How did the Ottoman Empire's economy differ from Europe? The Ottoman Empire's government had a say in the economy and businesses.
How did the Ottomans view Europeans? As inferior.
How did the Ottomans' bias prevent them from keeping up with the times? Since they believed they were too good for Europe, they refused to utilize their discoveries, such as the printing press.
What caused Europe to gain power and the Middle East to lose it? Spain gained control over the Mediterranean Sea after beating the Ottoman Empire, causing them to lose trade money.
How did the religions of the Ottoman and Safavid Empire differ? The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims while the Safavid were Shiites.
What caused the Shiites to become a minority? Their leader, Ali, was assassinated.
Descendants of Muhammad that were believed by the Shiites to be true heirs to the throne. Imams.
Who is the Hidden Imam? The 12 descendant of Ali that disappeared and ended the Shiite reign,
Who was Ismail? The general of the Shiite army that was formed in the 1500s, established the Safavid Empire.
How did the Safavid Empire get its name? A Sufi mystic named Safi Al-Din.
What was the official religion of the Safavid Empire? Twelver Shiism, which was inspired by the Hidden Imam.
What were the main reasons for conflict between the Ottoman and Safavid Empire? Religious differences and expansion.
Who did the Safavid send to to fight the Ottomans at the Battle of Chaldiran? Their Calvary, the qizilbash, with swords and knives.
What types of weapons did the Ottomans use in the Battle of Chaldiran? Cannons and muskets.
Who won the Battle of Chaldiran? The Ottomans.
Why is the Battle of Chaldiran considered a marker event? It stopped Shiite expansion and forced the Safavid to upgrade their weaponry.
How did Shah Abbas I improve the Safavid Empire? Established a group of slave infantrymen from Russia to replace the qizilbash, communicated with Europe to learn of their new technology and weapons.
Why was the Safavid considered a land based empire? They didn't have a navy, their capital was inland, and they didn't trade by sea.
What was the effect of the Safavid being a land based empire? They did not receive much cultural diffusion.
Why was there a cultural split between the Safavid and Europeans? The Safavid did not approve of European religions.
What empire was the Safavid political system based on? Persia.
How did Ismail gain political power? He claimed he was the Hidden Imam and a reincarnation of Allah.
How was Shah Abbas different from the other Muslim sultans? He was open to cultural diffusion.
What was the problem with the Safavid's social system and culture? They were trying to enforce Persian ideals on Turkish people.
What was Isfahan famous for exporting? Rugs and carpets.
How was Isfahan similar to Istanbul? They had trading guilds, inflation of silver negatively impacted economy, major trading capital.
How was Isfahan different than Istanbul? Isfahan had much less visitors and travelers, Isfahan was not a city and was still reliant on agriculture, home to many nomadic groups.
How was the Safavid Empire culturally different than the Ottoman? The Ottoman was inspired by Arabic culture, while the Safavid was inspired by Persian culture.
What example of Persian culture did the Safavid show? They wrote in Persian, had Persian literature and history, had their rugs to decorate, architecture.
How did Sufi mysticism become the main religion of the Safavid Empire? The Safavid discovered that their ruler was a descendant of Safi Al-Din, the founder of Sufi mysticism.
How did Shiism become the main religion of the Safavid Empire? The shah banned Sufi mysticism.
How was the downfall of the Ottoman similar to the downfall of the Safavid? They were both gradual.
Why did the Safavid collapse? Attacks from Turkey and Afghanistan.
What did the Safavid collapse symbolize? The rise of sea based powers and the fall of land based ones.
Who led the Mughal Empire? Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan.
Who did the Mughal Empire conquer? The Delhi Sultanate of India.
What were the social classes of the Delhi Sultanate like? High class Muslims and lower class Hindus.
What was the population of the Mughal Empire like? Mongols and Turks.
Why did Babur want to conquer the Delhi Sultanate? He lost his homeland, wanted to live up to his ancestors' achievements.
How did Babur conquer the Delhi Sultanate? Through his military skills, such as causing the Delhi's elephants to stampede.
Humayan. Babur's son, reconquered northern India after conflict.
Akbar. Babur's grandson, led the golden age of the Mughals and was tolerant of non-Muslims.
How did Babur view India? As a terrible place to live.
How were the Mughals similar to the Ottoman and the Safavid? Relied heavily on their military, spread Islam, fighting between princes caused political instability, autocratic sultan, gave land grants to aristocracy for military, were in decline by 1750, farm + trade, inflation of silver, patriarchies with wife po
How were the Mughals similar to the Safavid? Neither of them had a navy, but the Ottomans did. Traded a lot, but the Ottomans had the most trade with Istanbul. Had inland capitals and not much sea based trade Ottoman + Mughal were Sunni Majority of Mughal pop was Hindu, not Muslim Art
How did Akbar enforce religious tolerance? He let Hindu rajas have positions in government, intermarriage between Hindus and Muslims, ended the jizra tax, allowed Hindu temples to be built, protected sacred Hindu cows.
How did Akbar make a Golden Age possible? Religious tolerance, reasonable taxes, balance of powers between regional and central leaders.
Who ended the religious tolerance of the Mughal Empire and why? Aurangazeb, because he was a devout Muslim.
How did the Mughals gain profit? Military generals were paid for soldiers, trade with Europe of cotton, indigo, and silk.
How did the women participate in the Gunpowder Empires? The wives of rulers could help make decisions.
Hurrem. Suleiman the Magnificent's wife, convinced Suleiman to execute his son so that her own son could have the throne.
What were some examples of lack of women's rights despite the work of rulers' wives? Veiling, sati, forced marriages, purdah.
What religions did the Divine Faith combine? Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Sikhism.
Who created the Divine Faith and why? Akbar the Great because he wanted to settle disputes because Muslims and Hindus.
Was the Divine Faith successful? No.
Who invented Sikhism and what was it? Nanuk, a blend of Hindu and Muslim beliefs.
What were the basic beliefs of Sikhism? Meditation, no caste system.
Why was there conflict between the sultan and the Sikhs? Sultan Aurangzeb was against religious toleration and killed the 9th guru of Sikhism, which started rebellions and the growth of the Army of the Pure.
How were Jahangir and Shah Jahan different from Akbar? They were less interested in building the military and expansion.
How were Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Akbar similar? They all were patrons of the arts.
How did Mughal architecture blend Persian and Indian culture? Domes, arches, minarets- Islam Detailed, rich decorations- Hindu Ceramic tiles- Persian Semiprecious stones- Indian
How is Fatehpur Sikri an example of Mughal architecture? It was the capital city that had many libraries and had many well known beauties.
How did Akbar use Fatehpur to unite people of different cultures and religions? He invited everyone to view his libraries.
What was India like in period three? Period three- Was decentralized at first, then Delhi Sultanate was formed, conflict between Hindus and Muslims, Hinduism was the glue due to the unstable government
What was India like in period four? Period four- Mughal Empire, which was stronger than the Delhi Sultanate, temporary religious tolerance, gradually became less powerful
Why did it take Russia so long to become powerful? They relied on and were inspired by the Byzantine Empire, which fell in 1453.
Created by: emarciante10



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