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Lecture Exam 2:

Chapter: 10, 14, 16, 18, 19, 27

Chapter 10: Muscle Tisssue There are 3 types of muscles in the body: 1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth
Properties of Muscle Tissue Excitability – input receptive Contractility Elasticity: tension is not a problem Extensibility: stretching is all good
Functions of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Body movement Maintenance of posture Temperature regulation Storage and movement of materials Support
Endomysium: _______ layer that surrounds and electrically insulates each muscle fiber
Perimysium: Surrounds the ________ Dense irregular connective tissue
Epimysium: Surrounds the entire muscle Dense irregular connective tissue Deep fascia surrounds each muscle and separates muscles from each other Superficial fascia separates muscle from skin
Muscle Attachments: The less moveable point of attachment is called the origin The more moveable point of attachment is called the insertion
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy: There are 2 main structures that are unique to muscle fibers: Transverse tubules (T-tubules): Deep passageways of the sarcolemma that extend into the cytoplasm Form a network of tubules that enables muscle impulses to spread quickly internally Terminal cisternae: Blind sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Two te
Muscle Fiber/Cell components: Myofibrils Has contractile properties Is a long cylinder Made of myofilaments. Have the ability to shorten, resulting in contraction of the muscle fiber
Myofibrils and Myofilaments: Myofilaments Thick filaments: Composed of bundled molecules of myosin Myosin molecule has a head and elongated tail The heads form crossbridges with the thin filaments during contraction
Myofilaments slide #2: Thin filaments: Composed 2 actin molecules twisted into a spiral shape (helix). Two regulatory proteins are also part of the thin filament: Tropomyosin Troponin
sarcomere : is the functional contractile unit in a skeletal muscle fiber Defined by the area between two adjacent Z discs/Z – lines “From Z-line to Z-line” = ______ Myofibrils contain multiple and repeating sarcomeres Sarcomeres shorten, and thus the muscle
Components of the Neuromuscular Junction: Synaptic knob: Expanded tip of an axon Synaptic vesicles: Membrane sacs filled with acetylcholine (ACh) Motor end plate: Region of sarcolemma that has folds and indentations to increase the surface area covered by the synaptic knob Synaptic cleft: Narr
Mechanism of contraction: A nerve impulse causes ACh to be released into the synaptic cleft ACh binds to receptors in the motor end plate initiating a muscle impulse along the sarcolemma and T-tubule membranes Spread of the impulse down T-tubules causes Ca++ to leak out of termi
Mechanism of contraction cont...: Calcium ions bind to troponin, causing tropomyosin to uncover active sites on G-actin *Basically Ca allows thick filaments to bind to actin. Myosin heads bind to actin and form crossbridges In the presence of ATP, myosin cycles through attachment, piv
Muscle tone : refers to the constant tension in a resting muscle Motor units are stimulated randomly to avoid fatigue
2 types of muscle contraction: 1. Isometric contraction: Length is constant; tension is changing 2. Isotonic contraction: Tension is constant; length is changing Concentric contraction: Muscle is shortening Eccentric contraction: Muscle is lengthening
Chapter 14 Nervous System: Nervous System Intro What is the function? Perception and response system Integrates information Examples… External Stimuli? Internal Stimuli? Made possible by neurons – can conduct signals respond to other neurons chemically.
What’s it doing in the Nervous system?: It connects with the brain and spinal cord. Brings impulses to and fro Examples Sense organs to the eyes Impulses from CNS to muscles and glands 12 cranial nerves 31 spinal nerves
Structural Organization: Central and Nervous system has 2 subdivisions: The brain and spinal cord is the _Central______ The ____Peripheral Nervous Systems:______ Includes the cranial
Cranial nerves originate from the ___ brainstem
Spinal nerves originate from the ___ spine cord
Somatic sensory- General senses such as touch, pain, pressure, vibration, and proprioception
Visceral sensory- Impulses from viscera
Somatic motor- Impulses from the CNS that cause paralysis______________.
Autonomic motor- transmit impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac, and glandular tissue.
Glial cells- Nonexcitable cells that support and protect the neurons
Neuron Anatomy “The List” Cell Body containing: Nissl bodies (chromatophilic RER (protein syn) and microtubules Nucleus and Nucleolus
Nuclei/Nucleus- a cluster of neuron cell bodies in the CNS
Ganglion (“swelling”)/ganglia - a cluster of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
Functional Neuron Classification: Sensory (afferent): Af - toward Motor (efferent): Ef - away Interneurons: Facilitate communication between sensory and motor neurons
4 types of glial cells in CNS 1. Astrocytes 2. Ependymal cells 3. Microglial cells 4. Oligodendrocytes
Microglial Cells- Small motile cells Patrol the CNS and respond to infection Phagocytic role thus similar to macrophage.
Oligodendrocytes- Associated with CNS axons only Wrap themselves around the axons like electrical tape wrapped around a wire Produce myelin, which insulates the nerve impulses
2 types of glial cells are found in the PNS: 1. Satellite cells 2. Neurolemmocytes
Myelination of Axons Affects the ability of neurons to conduct nerve impulses, also called action potentials Myelination is the process of wrapping the axon with a myelin sheath Formed by neurolemmocytes in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS Serves as insulation
Myelination Nerves A bundle of axons running like a cable parallel to one another. Surrounded by 3 connective tissue wrappings Endoneurium: Around each axon Perineurium: Around individual fascicles Epineurium: Around the entire nerve
Synapses – “a joining together” A junction point between one axon and another neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell A typical synapse consists of: Pre-synaptic neuron Post-synaptic neuron Synaptic cleft
Chapter 16 Spinal Cord: Gross Anatomy – parts of the Spinal Cord 1. Cervical 2. Thoracic 3. Lumbar 4. Sacral 5. Coccygeal Each associated with a spinal n. pair. Parts cont.. The end part that tapers = conus medullaris More distally, the nerve roots resemble a horse’s tail
cauda equina- project from the spinal cord
filum terminale- which is a thin strand of pia mater that helps anchor the conus medullaris to the coccyx
Epi-dural space: Lies between the dura mater and periosteum covering the inner walls of the vertebra Houses areolar connective tissue, blood vessels, and fatty connective tissue for padding.
Dura mater: Dense CT is in contact with bone Forms a tube like wrap around the spinal cord.
Arachnoid mater: is deep to the dura mater and the subdural space
Subarachnoid space: b/t the arachnoid mater and the pia mater is the CSF zone.
Pia mater: Innermost meninx that adheres directly to the spinal cord Highly vascularized thus it helps to support the vessels of the spinal cord.
Gray Matter: Dendrites and cell bodies of neurons, unmyelinated axons, and glial cells
White Matter: Myelinated axons in tracts of sensory and motor neurons.
Centrally located in spinal cord Sectioned shape the letter “H” Subdivided into: Anterior Horns Lateral Horns Posterior Horns Gray Commissure – the cross bar of the H Central canal - *continuous with ventricle system. What is it filled with?
Partitioned into three regions, each called a funiculus: Posterior funiculus Lateral funiculus Anterior funiculus Anterior funinculi connected by the white commissure
Spinal Nerves – PNS Made up of motor and sensory axons Contain connective tissue wrappings: Endoneurium- Around each axon. Perineurium- Around individual fascicles Epineurium- Around the entire nerve
Posterior rootlets- rootlets are derived from a single posterior root
Posterior roots- contain sensory axons only
the posterior root ganglion- which is attached to the posterior root
Nerve Plexuses- is a network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves The anterior rami of most spinal nerves form nerve plexuses Plexuses split into multiple named nerves that inn body structures Ex: Brachial plexus
Reflexes- are rapid, automatic, involuntary reactions of muscles or glands to a stimulus A stimulus is required to initiate a response to sensory input A rapid response requires that few neurons be involved and synaptic delay be minimal
Reflex arc- arc is the neural wiring of a single reflex Always begins at a receptor (sensory neurons) in the PNS Communicates with the CNS Ends at a peripheral effector (organ) Ex: skeletal muscle
Stretch reflex- knee-jerk (Monosynaptic) Sensory axons synapse directly on motor neurons, whose axons project to the muscle (effector)
Withdraw reflex- (Polysynaptic) More complex pathways that exhibit a number of synapses involving interneurons within the reflex arc
Chapter 18 Autonomic Nervous System: somatic nervous system (SNS)- includes processes that are perceived (sensory) or controlled consciously “skeletal muscle” – voluntarily
autonomic nervous system (ANS)- includes processes regulated automatically subconscious level
ANS Motor PW w/ neurons 1st neuron- is the preganglionic neuron, and its cell body is in the brain or spinal cord
preganglionic axon- extends to the second cell body housed within an autonomic ganglion in the peripheral nervous system
2nd neuron- is called a postganglionic neuron
postganglionic axon- extends from its cell body to the target
Parasympathetic division- Conservation of energy and replenishment of nutrient stores (“rest-and-digest”); maintains homeostasis Constant set parameters
Sympathetic division- Preparation of body for emergencies (“fight-or-flight”); increased alertness and metabolic activity – excitement, etc.,
preganglionic neurons- are located in cranio-sacral zone/division Brainstem and sacral regions
Autonomic ganglion - synapse b/t the pre and post - is close to or built into the organ wall – in the wall of the organ it controls – the so called target organ.
thoracolumbar division- are housed between first thoracic (T1) and second lumbar (L2) of the spinal cord. Originate from lateral horns Autonomic ganglion is in the sympathetic trunk (and pre-vertebral)
sympatho-adrenal medulla pathway- involves the adrenal medulla This is the internal region (medulla) of adrenal gland that releases hormones within the bloodstream to help promote fight-or-flight response The hormones are epinephrine and norepinephrine Prolongs the “fight-or-flight res
Autonomic function : is influenced by the: Cerebrum
Hypothalamus- oversees the brainstem and the spinal cord Controls viscera Can regulate emotional response – fight-or-flight
Brainstem- Controls visceral reflexes
Spinal cord Controls lower level reflexes
Chapter 19 Sensory Receptors General senses : temperature, pain, touch, stretch, and pressure
Special senses : gustation, olfaction vision, equilibrium, and hearing
Structures that detect stimuli Can be structurally complex (the eye) or very simple (dendritic endings in the nose) Sensory impulses may terminate in the cortex and then they are consciously interpreted.
transducers- where they change one form of energy into another
Receptors can be tonic or phasic Basis of sensory adaptation
Tactile Receptors Located in the dermis and subcutaneous layer of the skin 2 types: 1. Unencapsulated: Endings not wrapped in connective tissue or glial cells- skip 2. Encapsulated: Endings wrapped in connective tissue or glial cells
Gustatory cells are taste receptors located in specialized organs called taste buds
Taste buds are located on the dorsal aspect of the tongue in epithelial and connective tissues elevations called papillae
4 types of papillae 1. Filiform papillae – threadlike; ant. 2/3rds 2. Fungiform papillae – knob-like; tip and sides. 3. Vallate papillae – largest & least numerous 4. Foliate papillae – back on sides
Papillae and Taste Buds of the Tongue: Each taste bud is composed of numerous cells called gustatory cells, which are enclosed in supporting cells Each gustatory cell has a dendritic ending (free dendritic nerve ending) called a gustatory microvillus or taste hair The taste hair pokes out th
5 taste sensations include: 1. Sweet 2. Salt – ions like Na+ & K+ 3. Sour – acids 4. Bitter – alkaloids like “dark” chocolate 5. Umami – related to amino acids like glutamic acid – “meaty” flavor.
Olfaction: The sense of smell Detect odors
Olfactory epithelium: Consists of 3 distinct cell types – in nasal cavity 1. Olfactory receptor cells (nerves) in nasal mucosa 2. Supporting cells 3. Basal cells – a kind of neural stem cell
Olfactory Pathways for Axons: Axons (CN I axons) from neurons of the nasal mucosa pass through the foramina (holes) of the cribriform plate (ethmoid) and enter the olfactory bulbs
Olfactory Pathways for Neurons: Neurons within the olfactory bulbs project axon bundles, called olfactory tracts, to the olfactory cortex of the temporal lobe
Vision The receptors for vision reside in the eye These photoreceptors are capable of detecting light, color, and movement There are accessory structures of the eye that prevent foreign objects from coming in contact with the eye and ensure that the surface of
External Eye Accessory Structures: Eyebrows – cuts down on sweat issues Eyelashes Eyelids are movable anterior protective covering for the eye Tarsal glands (sebaceous gland) are located within both eyelids; help prevent tear overflow and keep the eyelids from sticking together
Conjunctiva: lines the anterior surface of the eye (but not the cornea) and the inner surface of the eyelid This is a major zone for moistening the eye via built in goblet cells & blood supply deliver to the sclera
Lacrimal Apparatus- Produces, collects and drains lacrimal fluid (tears) from the eye F(x): -Lubrication -Contain the enzyme lysozyme
Lacrimal Apparatus Consists of the following components: Lacrimal caruncle: Contains modified sweat glands – on the medial aspect of eye Lacrimal puncta: Small “holes” in the caruncle Lacrimal canaliculus: Drains lacrimal fluid into lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct: Receives tears from the lacrimal sac and dra
Fibrous Tunic Composed of 2 regions: Cornea: Transparent, avascular layer that receives oxygen and nutrients from lacrimal fluid and aqueous humor; Helps bend light into the eye
Sclera: Makes up the majority of the fibrous tunic; considered the “white” of the eye and allows for the attachment of the extrinsic eye muscles to the eye
Retina: Pigmented layer – next to middle choroid Provides nutrient and waste exchange plus provides Vit. A to neural layer Neural/photo layer – transducing layer Has the photoreceptors Rods (dim light receptors) Very numerous & located on the peripheral ma
optic disc : is a “blind spot” on the retina Located where ganglion cell axons exit retina to form optic nerve (CN II) and retinal arteries and veins enter and exit the retina Lacks photoreceptors
fovea centralis is an area of retina that contains the highest proportion of cones and almost no rods Area of sharpest vision
Visual Pathways pathway between light input and the perception of vision: Light is detected by photoreceptors in the neural layer. Stimulus to other nerves and ganglion cells Axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve. Ultimately, from the thalamus, axons proj
Chapter 27 Urinary System: Urinary Organs: Ureters – carry urine from the kidney to the bladder Urethra that conducts urine to the environment
Coronal section of kidney kidney is divided into an outer renal cortex and an inner renal medulla renal cortex, called renal columns, project into the renal medulla and subdivide the medulla into renal pyramids (medullary pyramids) A typical kidney contains 8 to 15 renal pyramid
Other Coronal kidney section Each renal papilla projects into a hollow funnel-shaped structure called the minor calyx Several minor calyces fuse to form a major calyx The major calyces fuse to form the renal pelvis, which collects the total urine output from one kidney and transpor
Blood Supply to the Kidney structure called the renal corpuscle and form a tuft (ball) of capillaries called the glomerulus Some plasma is filtered out of the capillaries into the capsular space within the renal corpuscle. The remaining blood exits the glomerulus and the renal co
Nephrons functional filtration unit of the kidney Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle, a proximal convoluted tubule, a nephron loop, and a distal convoluted tubule There are two types of nephrons: Cortical nephrons: About 85% of all nephrons; the bulk of
Renal Corpuscle - part of the nephron Composed of two structures: Glomerulus: a specialized mass of fenestrated capillaries Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s): An epithelial capsule surrounding the glomerulus
Renal Corpuscle - part of the nephron prt2: Has a vascular pole, where the afferent arteriole enters and the efferent arteriole exits, Has a tubular pole, where the proximal convoluted tubule exits
PCT Begins at tubular pole of renal corpuscle Walls are composed of simple cuboidal epithelium with tall microvilli Cells reabsorb almost all nutrients leaked through the filtration membrane
Nephron Loop The nephron loop (loop of Henle) projects into the medulla and contains 2 parts: Descending limb: Extends from the cortex into the medulla 2. Ascending limb: Returns from medulla into cortex Both parts involved in reabsorption of water and solutes
Distal Convoluted Tubule Found in renal cortex Secretes K+ and H+ from peritubular capillaries into tubular fluid Responds to ADH and aldosterone For example, increasing levels of these hormones will increase water and sodium reabsorption in the DCT
Urinary Tract Composed of the following components Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra
Urinary Bladder The posteroinferior triangular area of the urinary bladder is called the trigone It is defined by the two ureteral opening and the urethral opening
Urethra is a fibromuscular tube that originates at the neck of the urinary bladder.
cont... Urethra prt 2 conducts urine to the exterior of the body 2 sphincters control the release of urine from the urinary bladder in to the urethra: Internal urethral sphincter External urethral sphincter
Female Urethra: The female urethra transports urine out of the body
Male Urethra male urethra has urinary and reproductive functions because it serves to transport both urine and semen The male urethra is partitioned into 3 segments: Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Spongy urethra Ends as an opening called the external urethr
Created by: Rodney C
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