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Ch 2-Body as a Whole

The Language of Medicine 11th Edition

TermDefinition
Cell The smallest living unit, the fundamental unit of all living things.
Cell Membrane Surrounds and protects the cell, as well as regulates what passes into and out of the cell.
Nucleus controls the operations of the cell, determines the structure and function of the cell
Chromosomes rod like structures within the nucleus. All human body cells contain 23 pairs.
Genes chromosomal regions
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Regulates the activities of the according to it's sequence on each chromosome.
Karyotype a photograph of an individuals chromosomes, arranged by size, shape, and number.
amniocentesis Puncture of the sac around the fetus for removal of fluid and cells.
Cytoplasm (Cyto=cell, Plasm=formation) includes all of the material outside the nucleus and is enclosed by the cell membrane.
Mitochondria small sausage shaped bodies that provide the principal source of energy for the cell.
Catabolism The process where sugar and fat are broken down into simpler substances and energy is released by mitochondria.
endoplasmic reticulum network (reticulum) of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell, that manufacture proteins in the cell.
Ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, which build long chains of proteins.
Anabolism the process of building large proteins from small protein pieces called amino acids. (Occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum)
metabolism Total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes catabolism and anabolism. Meta- means change, bol- means to cast, and -ism means a process.
Muscle Cell Long and slender and contains fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing.
Epithelial Cell (a lining and skin cell) Square and flat to provide protection.
Nerve Cell may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses.
Fat Cell contains large, empty spaces for fat storage.
Tissue a group of similar cells working together to do a specific job.
Histologist a scientist who specializes in the study of tissues.
Hist/o Tissue
Epithelial Tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surfaces of internal organs.
Connective Tissue Fat, Cartilage, Bone, and Blood
Adipose fat tissue
Cartilage elastic, fibrous tissue attached to bones
Nerve Tissue Conducts impulses all over the body.
Viscera Internal organs (Singular: Viscus)
Digestive System mouth, pharynx, esophagus,stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Pharynx Throat
Urinary or Excretory System kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
ureters tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urethra tube from bladder to outside of the body
Female Reproductive System Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
uterus womb
Male Reproductive System testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland
Endocrine System Thyroid Gland, Pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands
Nervous System Brain, Spinal Chord, nerves, collections of nerves
Circulatory System Heart, Blood Vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
Muscuskeletal System Muscles, Bones, and Joints
Skin and Sense organs Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands (oil glands); eye, ear, nose, tongue
Respiratory System Nose, Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
Larynx Voice Box
Pharynx Throat
trachea windpipe
Ventral Cavities Located in the front of the body
Dorsal Cavities Located in the back of the body
Cranial Cavity Brain, pituitary gland
Thoracic Cavity Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta
Pleural Cavity Space surrounding each lung. (part of the Thoracic cavity)
Pleura double membrane that surrounds the lungs and protects them.
Mediastinum Cavity centrally located space outside of and between the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, bronchial tubes, and many lymph nodes. (part of the Thoracic Cavity)
Abdominal Cavity Peritoneaum, stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
Peritoneum double folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity- attaches the abdominal muscles and surrounds each organ to hold it in place.
Kidneys two bean shaped organs situated behind the abdominal cavity, in the retroperitoneal cavity.
Diaphragm a muscular wall that divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
Pelvic Cavity Portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, and ureters; uterus and vagina in the female.
Spinal Cavity Nerves of the spinal chord.
Abdominopelvic cavity the abdominal and pelvic cavities referred together as ______.
Ventral (Anterior) Pertaining to the front
Dorsal (posterior) Pertaining to the back
Created by: misscollin