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Apologia Human Body

Module 4

Osteoblast A bone-forming cell
Osteocyte A mature bone cell surrounded by bone matrix
Osteoclast A large, multinucleated cell that breaks down bone
Hematoma A localized mass of blood that is confined to an organ or some definable space
Callus A mass of tissue that connects the ends of a broken bone
Anatomical position The position acquired when one stands erect with the feet facing forward, the upper limbs hanging at the sides, and the palms facing forward with the thumbs to the outside
A bone cell completely surrounded by bone matrix is this kind of bone cell: osteocyte
A bone cell has more than one nucleus is this kind of bone cell: osteoclast
These are the two principal agents in bone matrix: collagen and hydroxyapatite
This gives bones some flexibility and tensile strength collagen
This gives bones their hardness hydroxyapatite
If bone tissue under a microscope shows no osteons, is it compact or cancellous bone tissue? cancellous
Cancellous bone tissue is made of this trabeculae
This is found in the spaces between trabeculae red bone marrow
Osteons are made of layers of tissue that form cylinders, which are called this: concentric lamellae
This is the term for the layers of tissue between osteons interstitial lamellae
Extensions of osteocytes which allow the cells in bone tissue to communicate with one another canaliculi
All new bone tissue is cancellous bone. Some new bone tissue must be compact bone, so cancellous bone tissue often needs to be remodeled into this: compact bone tissue
Bones increase and decrease in mass based on the stress they experience, so bones are constantly remodeled so they can: meet the changing demands that you place on them
Bone is constantly _____________________ in order to reshape the bone as needed remodeled
Bone is remodeled to ________________ broken bones repair
Bone is remodeled to __________________ worn collagen or hydroxyapatite replace
Bone is remodeled to regulate _________________ levels in your body calcium
Bone growth occurs when new cartilage is added to the bone's epiphyseal plate. Why doesn't the epiphyseal plate get thicker as the bone grows? Cartilage is ossified at the same rate in which it is aded.
Bone growth occurs when new cartilage is added to the bone's epiphyseal plate. As a result, the _______________ gets bigger, but the epiphyseal plate does not. diaphysis
What is the term for the kind of bone growth that can occur once the epiphyseal plate is ossified? appositional bone growth
What is appositional bone growth? Bone growth that makes the bone thicker, not longer.
The purpose of the ______________ __________________ is to help hold the broken pieces of bone together. external callus
The purpose of the ______________ ________________ is to ossify to become the new bone tissue. internal callus
Calcitonin is secreted by the _______________ gland thyroid
PTH is secreted by the _________________ gland parathyroid
___________________ decreases osteoclast activity calcitonin
___________________ increases osteoclast activity PTH
What gland secretes human growth hormone (HGH)? anterior pituitary gland
This stimulates bone growth by increasing osteoblast activity HGH
The sex hormones increase _______________ activity, which first stimulates bone growth. osteoblast
Sex hormones stimulate _______________of the epiphyseal plates, which eventually halts bone growth (in length). ossification
Which type of joint is associated with most of the movement of the skeleton? synovial
The three major types of joints in the body are fibrous joints, _______________ joints, and synovial joints. cartilaginous
________________ _____________________ cushions the ends of the bones with a "hard plastic" finish, which makes the bones rub against each other more smoothly and with no bone damage. articular cartilage
______________ _________________ lubricates the joint, making motion in the joint much easier than it would otherwise be. synovial fluid
The _________________ ___________________ produces synovial fluid. synovial membrane
______________________ are extensions from osteobytes that allow for communication with each other canaliculi
What two types of joint in the body provide for little or no range of motion? fibrous joints and cartilagionous joints
Which type of synovial joint offers the greatest range of motion? ball and socket joint
Which type of synovial joint offers the smallest range of motion? gliding joint/plane joint
Created by: q



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