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The Endocrine System

TermDefinition
endocrine cells secretory cells that release hormones directly into the interstitial fluid, lymphatic system, or blood
hormones chemical messengers that stimulate specific cells or tissues into action
amino acid derivatives small molecules that are structurally similar to amino acids; class of hormones e.g. derivatives of tyrosine such as thyroid hormones and catecholamines; derivatives of tryptophan such as melatonin
peptide hormones chains of amino acids; class of hormones e.g. hormones released by the pituitary gland
lipid derivatives class of hormones that can be divided into eicosanoids and steroid hormones
eicosanoids small molecules with a five-carbon ring at one end; derived from arachidonic acid; group of lipid derivatives coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes (such as blood clotting)
steroid hormones group of lipid derivatives that are structurally similar to cholesterol e.g. reproductive hormones; adrenal cortex hormones
target cells specific cells that have receptors needed to bind hormones and respond to their presence
humoral stimuli changes in the composition of ECF; trigger endocrine activity
hormonal stimuli arrival or removal of specific hormone(s); trigger endocrine activity
neural stimuli arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions; trigger endocrine activity
negative feedback system self-amplifying cycle where a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction
positive feedback system process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse that change
hypothalamus contains centers involved with the unconscious regulation of visceral functions, emotions, drives, and the coordination of neural and endocrine functions; makes up the floor of the diencephalon
pituitary gland (hypophysis) major endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum
infundibulum a tapering, funnel-shaped structure that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
diaphragm sellae a dural sheet that encircles the infundibulum and holds the pituitary gland in position
hypophyseal portal system capillary network that branches among endocrine cells in the anterior lobe
anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) lobe of the pituitary gland made up of the pars distalis, pars tuberalis, and pars intermedia
pars distalis large, anterior portion of the adenohypophysis
pars tuberalis portion of the adenohypophysis that wraps around the infundibulum superior to the posterior lobe
pars intermedia portion of the adenohypophysis that is adjacent to the neurohypophysis
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by thyrotropes in the pars distalis targets the thyroid gland, triggering release of thyroid hormones T3, T4, CT
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by corticotropes in the pars distalis targets the adrenal cortex, stimulating secretion of glucocorticoids (GC)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by gonadotropes in the pars distalis targets follicular cells in the ovaries or nurse cells in the testes, stimulating secretion of estrogens and promoting development of oocytes or sperm
luteinizing hormone (LH) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by gonadotropes in the pars distalis targets follicular cells in the ovaries or interstitial cells in the testes, stimulating ovulation and promoting secretion of progestins or androgens
prolactin (PRL) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by lactotropes in the pars distalis targets the mammary glands, stimulating the production of milk
growth hormone (GH) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by somatotropes in the pars distalis targets all cells, stimulating growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization, and catabolism; in the liver, causes the release of somatomedins, which stimulate protein synthesis in cartilage and muscle cells
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) anterior pituitary hormone secreted by corticotropes in the pars intermedia targets melanocytes, stimulating increased melanin production
thyrotropes endocrine cells in the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis that secrete TSH
corticotropes endocrine cells in the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis that secrete ACTH and MSH
gonadotropes endocrine cells in the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis that secrete FSH and LH
lactotropes endocrine cells in the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis that secrete PRL
somatotropes endocrine cells in the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis that secrete GH
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis) lobe of the pituitary gland that stores and releases ADH and OXT hormones released are called neurosecretions
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin; neurosecretion released in response to a rise in electrolyte concentration or a fall in blood pressure targets nephrons of the kidneys, causing kidneys to retain water (preventing dehydration) and peripheral blood vessels to constrict (elevating blood pressure)
oxytocin (OXT) neurosecretion targeting the smooth muscle of the uterus or prostate gland and contractile cells of the mammary glands causes uterine or prostate gland contractions, release of milk
thyroid gland gland located on the anterior surface of the trachea slightly inferior to thyroid and cricoid cartilages supplied by the superior thyroid artery (from the external carotid artery) and the inferior thyroid artery (from the thyrocervical trunk)
Created by: sdahlquist