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SSCT Intro to A&P

SSCT Intro to Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1, 2

Anatomy Study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts.
Physiology Study of the functions of living organisms and thier parts.
Tissue On organization of many similar cells that act together to perform a common function.
Organ Group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that they can together act as a unit to perform a special function.
System an organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so that they can together perform complex functions for the body.
Anatomical Position body erect or standing posture, arms at sides, palms turned forward, head and feet facing forward.
Supine Position body lying face upward
Prone Position body lying face downward
Superior Toward the head, upper or above.
Inferior Toward the feet, lower, or below. Away from the head.
Anterior front or in front of (aka ventral)
Posterior Back or in back of (aka dorsal)
Ventral toward the belly
Medial toward the midline
Lateral toward the side of the body or away from its midline
Proximal toward or nearest the trunk of the body or nearest the point of origin of one of its parts. (close to attachment)
Distal away from or farthest from the trunk or the point of origin of a body part (away from attachment)
Superficial nearer the surface (toward surface)
Deep farther away from the body surface (away from surface)
Sagittal Plane lengthwise plane running from front to back. Divides the body or any of it's parts into right & left sides.
Midsagittal Plane divides the body into two equal halves.
Frontal Plane lengthwise plane running from side to side. Divides body into anterior (front) or posterior (back)
Transverse Plane horizontal or crosswise plane. Divides the body into upper and lower portions. (top and bottom half)
Ventral Cavity Includes Thoracic, mediastinum and abdominal cavities.
Upper Ventral Cavity contains the thoracic cavity and pleural cavities
Lower Ventral Cavity contains the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. Also known as the abdomino-pelvic cavity.
Diaphragm seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Dissection Cutting Technique used to separate body parts for study.
Scientific Method Any logical and systematic approach to discovering principles of nature, of involving testing of tentative explanations called hypothese
Scientific Method observation, hypothesis, experiment, theory, law
Dorsal Toward the back (opposite of ventral)
2 Major body cavities Ventral & Dorsal
2 major portions or compenents of the body Axial & Appendicular
Homeostasis Relative uniformity of the normal bodys internal environment (i.e. normal body function)
Atrophy Wasting away of tissue decrease in size of a part
Appendicular Upper & lower extremeties of the body (i.e. arms, shoulders, hips, legs)
Axial Portion that consists of the head, neck, and torso
Positive feedback loop Amplifies a change in environment. (i.e. childbirth, bloodclot)
Negative feedback loop Oppose of or negate a change in a controlled condition or reverse a change back to normal. (i.e. Shivering)
Sensor Detects changes to environment (i.e. temperature)
Effector Creates the change to correct environment (i.e. furnace)
Control Center Compares actual environment to normal environment and responds accordingly
Experimentation Performing an experiment which usually a test of a tentative expanation of nature called a hypothesis
Hypothesis A proposal explanation of an observed phenomenon
Threory (law) An explanation of a Scientific principle that has been tested experimentally and found to be true.
Nucleas Core of each atom composed of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons
Proton Positively charged particle within the nucleas of an atom
Neutron Electrically neutral particle within the nuclease of an atom.
Atomic number Total number of protons in an atoms nucleas
Atomic Mass Combined total number of protons & neutrons in an atom
Energy Level Regions surrounding atomic nucleus
Element Pure Substance composed of only one type of atom
Electron Negatively charged particle orbiting the nuclease of an atom
Molecule Particles of matter that are composed of one or smaller units called atom's
Compound Substance whose molecules have more than one kind of element (atom) in them
Ionic Bond Chemical bond formed by the positive-negative attraction between two ions. Gives and accepts electrons
Electrolyte Molecules that form ions when dissolved in water
Covalent Bond formed when atoms share electrons by overlapping their energy levels. Share electrons.
Cholesterol Steriod lipid found in all body cell membranes and in animal fat present in food
Chemical Reaction Interaction among molecules in which atoms regroup into new combinations
Carbohydrate Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in certain specific proportions. i.e. sugars, starches & cellulose
Base A chemical that when dissolved in water reduces the relative concentration of the H+ ions in the whole solution
Atherosclerosis Hardening of the arteries
Biochemistry Study of the chemical aspects of life
Dissociate When a compound breaks apart in a solution
Double Helix Shape of DNA molecules a double spiral
Enzyme Help a chemical reaction occur but are not reactants or products themselves
Isotope Two atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses
Inorganic Compound Compound whose molecules do not contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
Hydrolysis Chemical reaction in which water is added to a large molecule causing it to break apart into smaller molecules
Glycogen Polysaccaride made up of a chain of glucose molecules i.e. animal starch
Lock & Key model Concept that explains how molecules react when they fit together
Lipid Fats and oils
Fat solid at room temp
Oil liquid at room temp
pH Mathematical expression of relative H+ concentration (acidity)
Radioactive Isotope An isotope that emits radiation
Reactant Any substance entering (and being changed by) a chemical reaction
Solute Substance that dissolves into another substance (salt is the solute dissolved in water)
Solvent Substance in which other substances are dissolved (water is the solvent for salt)
Triglyceride Lipid molecules formed by a glycerol unit joined to three fatty acids
Peptide Bond Covalent bond linking amino acids within a protein molecule
Organic Compound Compound whose large molecules contain carbon and that include C-C bonds and/or C-H bonds
Orbital A limit that electrons move about. Can hold two electrons
Nucleic Acid Made up of nucleotide units. Ultimately direct overall body structure and function
Nucleotide Basic building blocks of nucleic acids
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Atom Smallest particle of a pure substance that still has the chemical properties of that substance (composed of protons, electrons, neutrons)
Alkaline Any substance that, when dissolved in water, contributes to an excess of OH-ions (creating high PH)
Amino Acid Catagory of chemical units from which protein molecules are built
Aqueous Solution liquid mixture in which water is the solvent (i.e. saltwater - water is the solvent)
Phospholipid Phosate containing fat molecule found in cell membranes
Product Any substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Protein Very large molecules composed of basic units called amino acids
Dehydration Synthesis Chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together
Intermediate Between two structures of the body
Observation previous experiments
Hypothesis a reasonable guess based on observations and experiments
Experimentation testing the hypothesis
Theory (Law) a hypothesis that has gained a high level of confidence
Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial Cavity (brain) and Spinal Cavity (Spinal Cord)
Mediastinum Trachea, Heart, blood vessels
Pleural Cavity Lungs
Abdominal Cavity liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, parts of the large intestine
Pelvic Cavity lower colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
Cranial Cavity Brain
Spinal Cavity Spinal Cord
Ventral Cavity Thoracic Cavity and abdominal cavity
Dorsal Cavity Cranial Cavity and Spinal Cavity
Thoracic Cavity Mediastinum and Pleural Cavities
Homeostasis relative constancy of the internal environment
Created by: dmdisme