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A&P Ex. 44

Exercise 44: Heart Structure

What is the heart? A muscular pump
Where is the heart? Located within the mediastinum and resting upon the diaphragm. It is enclosed by the lungs, thoracic vertebrae, and sternum, and attached.
The hear and the proximal ends of the attached blood vessels are enclosed by what? A double-layered pericardium. Innermost layer: visceral layer of serous pericardium covering surface of the heart. Outer layer: parietal layer of serous pericardium with fibrous pericardium (tough, protective sac) surrounding the heart.
What is the pericardial cavity? Space between the parietal and visceral layers of pericardium that contains a small volume of serous (pericardial) fluid.
What are the 4 chambers of the heart: 2 superior atria and 2 inferior ventricles
What does the interatrial septum and interventricular septum do? They prevent oxygenated blood in the left side of the chambers from mixing with deoxygenated blood in the right chambers
Atrioventricular (AV) valves (___(1.)___) are located (2.). 1. Mitral and tricuspid ; 2. between each atrium and ventricle
Semilumar valves (__(1.)__) are at (2). 1. aortic and pulmonary ; 2. The exits of the ventricles into the 2 large arteries.
What do the heart valves do? Only allow blood flow in one direction
Fibrous pericardium outer layer of pericardium (pericardial sac)
Pericardial cavity Between parietal and visceral layers of serous pericardial membranes
Myocardium Composed of cardiac muscle tissues
Endocardium lines heart chambers
Right Atrium Receives blood from systemic veins
Left Atrium Receives blood from pulmonary veins
Auricles earlike extensions of atria allowing greater expansion for blood volumes
Right ventricle pumps blood into pulmonary circuit
Left ventricle Pumps blood into systemic circuit; has thicker myocardium than right ventricle
Atrioventricular orifices openings between atria and ventricles and guarded by AV valves
tricuspid valve The right atrioventricular valve; has 3 cusps
Mitral valve Left atrioventricular valve; bicuspid valve; has 2 cusps
Semilunar valves Regulate glow into 2 large arteries that exit from ventricles
Pulmonary valve Has 3 pocketlike cusps at entrance of pulmonary trunk
Aortic valve Has 3 pocketlike cusps at entrance of aorta
Chordea tendineae (tendinous cords) connect AV valve cusps to papillary muscles
Papillary muscles Projections from inferior ventricles; anchor AV valve cusps during ventricular contraction
Coronary sulcus Atrioventricular sulcus or groove ; encircles heart between atria and ventricles
Interventricular sulci Grooves with blood vessels along septum between ventricles
Arteries Carry blood AWAY from the heart
Veins Return the blood TO the heart
What do the arteries of the SYSTEMIC circuit contain? Oxygen-rich blood
What do the arteries of the PULMONARY circuit contain? Oxygen-poor blood
Superior Vena Cava returns blood to right atrium from superior part of systemic circuit
Inferior vena cava Returns blood to right atrium from the inferior part of system circuit
Pulmonary arteries Main artery of pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary arteries Main arteries to lungs
Pulmonary veins Return blood from pulmonary circuit into left atrium
Aorta Main artery of systemic circuit
Left and right coronary artery originate from where? Originates from base of aorta
Cardiac veins Drain the myocardium into coronary sinus
Coronary sinus for return of blood from cardiac veins into right atrium
Created by: elizabethcosio



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