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A&P Skeleton

Axial and Appendicular Skeleton; Chapter 8; UIUC MCB 244

Axial Skeleton bones along the central axis of the body; 3 regions- skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage; Function is to form framework that supports and protects organs; spongy bone of most contains hemopoietic tissue responsible for blood cell formation
Appendicular skeleton bones of upper and lower limbs and girdles of bones that attach them to axial skeleton.
Skull composed of cranial and facial bones
Cranial Bones form around the cranium, which encloses the brain; 8 bones
Facial Bones form face; protect entrances to digestive and respiratory systems; give shape and individuality to face, from part of orbital and nasal cavities, support teeth, provide muscle attachment for facial expression and mastication (chew) 14 bones
Cranial cavity encloses, protects and supports brain
Frontal bone forms the forehead
superciliary arches brow ridges
nasal bone form bony bridge of the nose
Glabella superior to nasal bones and between the orbits
Maxillae left and right fuse to form UPPER jaw and lateral boundaries of nasal cavity; form roof of oral cavity and portion of floor of each orbit
Mental protuberance chin of the mandible
Alveolar processes in oral margins of the maxillae and mandible and contain teeth
Anterior nasal spine very base of nasal septum, right above teeth; marks inferior border of nasal cavity
Nasal spetum divides nasal cavity into right and left halves; perpendicular plate of ethmoid above vomer
Calvaria roof of cranium, composed of parts of frontal bone, parietal bone, occipital bone
Cranial base composed of portions of ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, temporal bones
Orbit openings Superior orbital fissure, inferior orbital fissure
Coronal suture articulation between frontal and parietal bones
Sagittal suture connects left and right parietal bones
Lambdoid suture suture between occipital and parietal bones, sutural bones between occipital and parietal
External occipital protuberance prominence on posterior aspect of skull
Superior and inferior nuchal lines intersect external occipital protuberance
pterion portion of sphenoid bone, articulates with frontal parietal and temporal bones
temporomandibular joint mandible articulated with mandibular fossa or temporal bone
zygomatic arch fused portion of temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of the temporal bone
Mastoid process temporal bone; bump behind external ear opening
Hard palate roof of mouth; formed by palatine process of maxillae and palatine bones
pterygoid process sphenoid bone; medial pterygoid + lateral pterygoid plates
jugular foramen opening between temporal and occipital bones, passageway of internal jugular vein and nerves
carotid canal anteromedial to jugular foramen ; internal carotid artery passage
stylomastoid foramen between mastoid process and styloid process
occipital condyles articulate with first cervical vertebra; facial nerve extending through here
hypoglossal canal at edge of occipital condyles; hypoglossal nerve
sella turcica bony depression on sphenoid, houses pituitary gland
sutures immovable joints; form boundaries between cranial bones; connected by dense regular CT
squamous suture articulated temporal bone and parietal bone on each side of skull
Paranasal sinuses ai filled chambers open into nasal cavity; mucous membrane humidifies and warms inhaled air, provide resonance to voice; ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary and sphenoid sinuses
auditory ossicles 3 ear bones; petrous part of temporal bones; Malleus, incus, stapes
Hyoid Bone between mandible and larynx; medial body and 2 processes (greater/lesser cornua) attachment sites for tongue and larynx muscles and ligaments
vertebral column 24 vertebrae, fused sacrum and coccyx
cervical vertebrae bones of neck; 7 vertebrae, C1-C7; kidney shaped bodies; distinguished by transverse foramina (happy fish)
Atlas C1, cervical vertebrae; articulated with occipital condyles; lacks spinous process
Axis C2, cervical vertebrae; acts as pivot for rotation; fuses with body of axis
Thoracic Vertebrae 12; heart shaped bodies; costal facets; T11 and 12 lack transverse costa facets
Lumbar vertebrae largest, thick oval body;NO transverse foramina or costal facets
Sacrum triangular bone, forms posterior wall of pelvic cavity; apex- narrow, pointed portion of the bone projecting inferiorly
Coccyx fusion of 4 coccygeal vertebrae; attachment site for ligaments and muscles
Thoracic cage consists of thoracic vertebrae, ribs and sternum
Sternum flat bone; Manubrium- superior portion has two clavicular notches and suprasternal notch (first ribs cartilages); Body- longest part; Xiphoid process- at tip of sterum
True Ribs connect individually to sternum by cartilaginous extensions (costal cartilages) ribs 1-7
False Ribs DO NOT attach directly to sternum; ribs 8-12; ribs 11+12 are floating ribs
Created by: 1557312094364910



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