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Chapter 16 AP Euro

AP European Chapter 16 Vocabulary

Absolutism When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler. Biggest advocate was Hobbes.
Sovereignty Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
Totalitarianism Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state’s culture in the interest of the state.
Cardinal Richelieu Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown under Louis XIII in 1624. Died in 1642.
Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643)Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. Established absolute rule.
Fronde 1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIV. Caused political upheaval and economic devastation.
Jules Mazarin Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government. Died in 1661
"Sun King" (r.1643-1715) Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development through his palace at Versailles and his policies.
Jean-Babtiste Colbert An adviser to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration. Proposed mercantilism as the best policy for the economy
Mercantilism The philosophy that a state's strength depends upon it wealth.
"French Classicism" (1643-1715) Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.
Nicholas Poussin French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century.
William of Orange Dutch prince invited to be king of England (William III) after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Peace of Utrecht 1713, ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Constitutionalism Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
Leviathan Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Petition of Rights (1628) Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission.
Oliver Cromwell As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship.
The Restoration (1660) Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
John Locke Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
Thomas Hobbes Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Wrote Leviathan.
Bill of Rights 1689, no law can be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.
New Model Army Created by Cromwell.
Created by: mr.bradley