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Thoracic NS

The PNS has efferent (motor) fibers that convey neural impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands (effector organs)
afferent (sensory) fibers that convey neural impulses to the CNS from sense organs and sensory receptors.
Peripheral nerves are either cranial nerves (12 pairs), which arise directly from the brain (CN I-X; XII) or the superior part of the spinal cord (CN XI), or spinal nerves (31 pairs)
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS integrates and coordinates incoming and outgoing neural signals and carries out higher mental functions, such as thinking and learning.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of nerve fibers and cell bodies outside the CNS that conduct impulses to or away from the CNS. The PNS connects the CNS with peripheral structures.
Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord as rootlets
Rootlets converge to form an anterior root, consisting of motor fibers, and a posterior root, consisting of sensory fibers.
The cell bodies of motor neurons are located in the anterior horn of spinal cord gray matter.
The cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in posterior root ganglia.
The posterior and anterior nerve roots unite to form a mixed spinal nerve,
immediately divides into anterior and posterior rami mixed spinal nerve
The anterior rami of nerves T1-T11 form the intercostal nerves that run through the intercostal spaces.
The anterior ramus of nerve T12 is known as the subcostal nerve.
The intercostal nerves innervate the intercostal muscles and give off lateral and anterior cutaneous branches.
Small collateral branches of the intercostal nerves can be found in the intercostal space along the superior border of the lower rib.
The autonomic (visceral) nervous system consists of visceral efferent (motor) fibers that stimulate smooth (involuntary) muscle, modified cardiac muscle, and glands.
These fibers are accompanied by visceral afferent (sensory) fibers that conduct visceral pain impulses and regulate visceral function.
The parasympathetic division leaves the CNS in association with what cranial nerves and with what spinal nerves III, VII, IX, and X; S2 to S4.
The sympathetic division leaves the spinal cord with the somatic components of spinal nerves T1 to L2 (or sometimes L3).
The parasympathetic division promotes normal visceral function
the sympathetic division prepares the body to “fight or flight.”
In both divisions of the ANS, conduction of impulses from the CNS to the effector organ involves a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron.
The axon of a presynaptic neuron synapses on the cell body of a postsynaptic neuron in a ganglion.
Parasympathetic neurons synapse in gangliawhere? on or near the effector organ.
Sympathetic neurons synapse in where? paravertebral or prevertebral ganglia.
Paravertebral ganglia are linked to form what on each side of the vertebral column? right and left sympathetic trunks (chains)
Prevertebral ganglia are located near the origins of the main branches of the abdominal aorta and named according to the adjacent branch. These include the celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric ganglia.
The cell bodies of presynaptic sympathetic neurons are located in the ___________ of the spinal cord at levels T1 through L2 intermediolateral columns (IMLs)
Each presynaptic sympathetic fiber synapses with 30 or more postsynaptic fibers.
Postsynaptic fibers destined for the neck, body wall, and limbs, leave the sympathetic trunks via _________ and enter ______________ gray rami communicantes; adjacent anterior rami.
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers enter all branches of all 31 pairs of spinal nerves, including the posterior rami.
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers destined for the heart, lungs, and esophagus pass through cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves
What nerves arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax? The abdominopelvic splanchnic
The abdominopelvic neres arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax where they are known as the thoracic splanchnic nerves.
Parasympathetic innervation of the thoracic viscera is provided by the vagus nerves (CN X).
Branches of the vagus nerves join branches of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves to form the cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexuses.
The heart is innervated by autonomic nerve fibers (parasympathetic and sympathetic) from the cardiac plexus.
The cardiac plexus is located on the posterior surface of the ascending aorta, the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, and the anterior surface of the bifurcation of the trachea.
The lungs are innervated by nerve fibers from the left and right pulmonary plexuses.
Parasympathetic contributions to the lungs come from the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves.
Sympathetic contributions to the lung come from the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves.
The esophagus is innervated by nerve fibers from the esophageal plexus. Parasympathetic contributions of the esophagus come from the
Created by: chelsiemd



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