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A&P Integumentary

Integumentary System Chapter 6. Anatomy and Physiology MCB 244 UIUC

epidermis epithelium of the integument; keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Stratum Basale (5)deepest epidermal layer; single layer of cuboidal to low columnar cells attached to an underlying basement membrane. Three cell types occupy: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Tactile cells
Keratinocytes most abundant cell type in the epidermis. Dominated by large keratinocyte stem cells. Synthesize keratin, a protein that strengthens the epidermis
Melanocytes long branching processes and are scattered among the keratinocytes. Produce and store the melanin pigment in response to UV light. Transfer in melanosomes to the keratinocytes in the basal layer. is near nucleus to prevent UV damage
Tactile Cells Merkel cells, sensitive to touch and when compressed release chemicals that stimulate sensory nerve endings, providing info about objects touching the skin
Stratum Spinosum (4)several layer of polygonal keratinocytes (spiny layer) once new cells enter the SS it begins to differentiate. Non-dividing keratinocytes attach to neighbors by desmosomes. Contains epidermal dendritic cells : immune cells , protect against pathogens
Stratum Granulosum (3) 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes; cells undergo keratinization, cells begin to die
Stratum Lacidum (2)clear layer; thin translucent region of 2 to 3 cell layers. found onlt in thick skin within the palms of the hands and the soles of feet. Protect from UV light
Stratum Corneum (1) hornlike layer; most superficial layer; 20-30 layers of dead keratinized cells. Anucleate
Thick skin found on palm of hands and soles of feet. 5 layers in epidermal strata occur. Houses sweat gland but has no hair follicles or sebaceous glands.
Thin skin covers most of the body, lacks stratum lucidum, only 4 layers; contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
skin color combination of hemoglobin, melanin and carotene
Melanin pigment produced and stored in melanocytes. amount is determined by heredity and light exposure
Carotene yell orange pigment acquired from various vegetables; accumulates in keratinocytes of stratum corneum and subcutaneous fat
Albinism inherited recessive condition where enzyme needed to produce melanin is non functional.
nevus mole, harmless localized overgrowth of melanocytes. rare can become malignant from UV light exposure
freckels yellow brown spots that represent localized areas of increased melanocyte activity, not an increase of melanocyte numbers
Hemangioma anomaly that results in skin discoloration due to blood vessels that proliferate to form a benign tumor
capillary hemangiomas strawberry colored birthmarks appear as red to deep purple that are usually present at birth and disappear in childhood
Cavernous hemangiomas port wine stains involve larger dermal blood vessels and may last a lifetime
friction ridges fingers, palms, soles and toes. Ridges from large folds and valleys of dermis and epidermis; help increase friction
Dermis deep to epidermis, CT proper and collagen fibers; dendritic cells as immune function; blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, nail roots, sensory nerve endings and arrector pili. papillary vs reticular
Papillary layer of dermis superficial region of dermis, areolar CT ; name from projections of dermis called dermal papillae; dermal papillae contain capillaries that supply nutrients and surface nerve endings
Reticular layer of dermis major portion of dermis, dense irregular CT, large bundles of collagen fibers project in all directions, "network" of collagen fibers
Subcutaneous layer not considered part of the integument; areolar CT and adipose CT; protects energy reservoir, provides thermal insulation
Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol; synthesized from a steroid precursor by keratinocytes when exposed to UV light. Increases absorption of Ca and phosphate from small intestine into blood, regulates levels in blood
Functions of Integument Protection, prevention of h2o loss and gain, metabolic regulation (d3), secretion and absorption, immune function, temp regulation, sensory reception
Vasoconstriction diameter of vessels narrow, less blood can travel through; net effect shunting of blood away from periphery and toward deeper structures, CONSERVING HEAT ; EXPOSURE TO COLD
Vasodilation diameter increases so more blood can travel through , excess heat can be lost is body is too warm , pink skin
Hair pilus, composed of keratinized cells growing from hair follicles that extend deep into demris
Lanugo fine, unpigmented downy hair that appears on the fetus in the last trimester
Vellus replaces lanugo, found on upper and lower limbs
Terminal hair coarser, pigmented and longer than vellus; grows on scalp, eyebrow hair and eyelashes; at puberty replaces vellus hair in the axillary and pubic regions and forms beard on faces
Functions of Hair protection; facial expression; heat retention, sensory reception, visual identification; chemical signal dispersal
Hair color result of melanin synthesis; aging decreases production of pigment
Hair growth and replacement Anagen, catagen, telogen
Anagen Phase acitve phase of growth where living cells of the hair bulb are rapidly growing, dividing and transforming into hair
Catagen phase brief regression period where cell division ceases and follicle undergoes involution
Telogen phase resting phase, hair is shed. After 3 to 4 months follicle reenter the anagen phase
Alopecia thinning of hair usually as a result of aging , both sexes
Diffuse Hair lose hair is shed from all parts of scalp. Women usually suffer due to hormones, drugs or iron deficiency
Male pattern baldness loss of hair first form crown region; caused by genetic and hormonal influences
hirsutism excessive male pattern hairiness in areas of the body that normally do not have terminal hair; growth on face, chest and back and can affect both sexes; commonly caused by excess of male sex hormones (androgens) through medical conditions or medications
Fibrosis too much damage; body fills gap with scar tissue (fibrous) replacement scar tissue is produced by fibroblasts and is composed of collagen fibers. Structural but not functional restoration
Reneration cut blood vessels bleed into wound, blood clot forms and leukocytes clean wound; blood vessels regrow and granulation tissue forms; epithelium regenerates and CT fibrosis occurs
Created by: 1557312094364910
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