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Digestive System

MBC 100 The Language of Medicine, Ch. 5

absorbtion Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
achlohdria Absence of hydrochloric acid fro the gastric juices.
amino acids Small building blocks of proteins, released when proteins are digested.
amylase An enzyme that digests (breaks down) starches into simpler substances (such as sugars).
anastomosis A surgical procedure that creates a new opening between tow previously unconnected tubular organs or parts of the same organ.
anus The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
appendectomy Removal or excision of the appendix.
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix.
appendix Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen.
bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
biliary Pertaining to bile or bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum).
bilirubine Orange-yellow pigment found in bile. It is released from the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
bowel Intestine. The large bowel is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine.
buccal mucosa Mucous membrane lining the cheek.
canine teeth Pointed dog-like teeth, next to the incisor.
cecal Pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine (colon).
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen.
cheilosis Abnormal condition of the lip.
cholecystectomy Removal (excision, resection) of the gallbladder.
choledocholithiasis Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct.
choledochojejunostomy Surgical anastomosis (creation of a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.
choledochotomy Incision of the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis Abnormal condition of stones (gallstones) in the bladder.
colon Large intestine (bowel).
colonic Pertaining to the colon.
colonoscopy Visual endoscopic examination of the colon.
colostomy New opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to t he outside of the body.
common bile duct Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine.
defecation Eliminating of wastes and undigested foods through the anus.
deglutition Swallowing
dentibuccal Pertaining to the cheek and teeth.
dentin Primary material found in teeth; surrounding the pulp covered by enamel of the crown.
digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
duodenal Pertaining to the duodenum. (1st part of the small intestine).
duodenum The first part of the small intestine.
elimination Act of removal of materials from the body.
emulsification Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles.
enamel Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
endodontist A dentist specializing int the inner parts of the tooth.
enterocolitis Inflammation of the small intestine and colon.
enteroenterostomy New opening between two previously unconnected parts of the small intestine.
enzyme Protein that speeds up the rate of a biochemical reaction.
esophageal Pertaining to the esophagus.
esophagus Tube that carries food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
fatty acids Substances that are produced when fats are digested.
facial Pertaining to the face.
feces Solid wastes; stools.
gallbladder Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored.
gastrointestinal tract The tubular system related to the stomach and intestines beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus.
gastrojejunostomy New surgical connection (anastomosis) between the stomach and the jejunum (second part of the small intestine).
gastrostomy New opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to t he ouside of the body.
gingivitis Inflammation of the gums.
gluconeogenesis Process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver.
glucose Simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells.
glycogen Storage form of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when it is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells.
glycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar
hepatoma Tumor of the liver.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
gydorchloric acid Strong acid, present in a dilute for in the stomach; aids digestion.
hyperbilirubinemia High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice.
hypoglossal Pertaining to under the tongue.
ileitis Inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine).
ileocecal sphincter Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine.
ileostomy New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body.
incisor One of the four front teeth on either jaw.
insulin Hormone secreted by the endocrine cells of the pancreas which transports sugar form the blood into the cells.
jejunum Second part of the small intestine.
labial Pertaining to the lip.
laparoscopy Process of visually examining the contents of the abdomen (using an endoscope).
lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
lithogenesis Formation of stone (calculi).
liver Large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen.
lower esophageal sphincter Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
mastication Chewing.
melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing blood.
mesentery Membrane that holds the intestine together.
molar teeth Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch.
oral Pertaining to the mouth.
orthodontist Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.
palate Roof of the mouth; hard portion is the front bony part and the sort portion is the posterior fleshy part near the throat.
palatopaharyngoplasty Surgical repair of the pharynx and palate.
palatoplasty Surgical repair of the palate (roof of the mouth).
pancreas Gland under and behind the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells.
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas.
papillae Small elevations on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds.
parenteral Pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection.
parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
perianal Pertaining to surrounding the anus.
peridontist Dentist specializing in treating the gums.
peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum.
peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and tubular structures.
pharyngeal Pertaining to the throat or pharynx.
pharynx Throat.
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
postprandial After meals.
premolar teeth Either of the two teeth on each side of the each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars.
proctologist Specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum.
protease Enzyme that digests protein.
pulp Soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels.
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscles that surrounds the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
pyloroplasty Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.
pylorus Distal region of the stomach near the duodenum.
rectocele Hernia of the rectum.
rectum Final section of the colon.
rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
salivary glands Three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, and submandibular glands.
sialadentis Inflammation of the salivary gland.
sialolith Salivary gland stone; lodged in a salivary gland or duct.
sigmoid colon Distal, lower end of the colon.
sigmoidoscopy Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon.
sphincter Circular ring of muscle that surrounds an opening or orifice.
steatorrhea Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat.
stomach Organ composed of three main parts: fundus (upper portion), body (middle section), and antrum (lower portion). It prepares food for the small intestine, where further digestion and absorption into the bloodstream take place.
Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth.
sublingaul Pertaining to under the tongue.
submandibular Pertaining to under the lower jaw (mandible).
triglycerides Chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.
uvula Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth.
uvulectomy Removal (excision) of the uvula.
villi Finger-like, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids.
Created by: Momster
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