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astrolabe an instrument, developed by Muslim navigators in the twelfth century, that allowed mariners to plot their latitude by determining the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies.
baroque controversial term applied to late 17th-early 18th century style of art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation; characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, and a proselytizing spirit.
bourse European stock exchange, i.e. group of people organized to provide an auction market among themselves for the buying and selling of securities in good. In the mid-16th century, the bourse at Antwerp was the largest in Europe.
Edict of Nantes (1598) document issued by Henry IV of France granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists in 150 towns; it helped restore peace in France.
Escorial Spanish imperial palace built 1563-1584, combining a monastery, the tomb of Spanish Habsburgs, and a royal residence.
General History of the Indies (1547) a book by Spanish chronicler Fernando de Oviedo, providing an informed and reliable account of plants, animals, and peoples; widely read in Europe.
Golden Century of Spain title given to 16th century Spain, because of its enormous power and influence in Europe, a power that rested on Mexican and S. American gold and silver.
Hugenots originally a pejorative term for French Calvinists, later the official title for members of the ‘Reformed religion", Calvinists.
magnetic compass Chinese invention that allowed sailors to determine their position and direction at sea; astrolabe - Muslim instrument enabling navigators to plot latitude or position north and south of the equator.
Peace of Westphalia (1648) series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years War; recognized the sovereign authority of 300+ German princes and thereby the end of the Holy roman Empire as a viable state);
Peace of Westphalia (1648) [CONTINUED] acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands; made Calvinism a permissible creed within Germany; and, by implication, reduced the role of the Roman Catholic Church in European politics.
politiques moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
price revolution economic theory that the flood of South American bullion into Europe created widespread inflation or price rise; much disputed by scholars.
Protestant Union (1608) alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism. Catholic princes responded with the Catholic League (1609).
quinto one-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas.
Spanish Armada (1588) fleet sent by Philip II of Spain against England, In his mind a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre begun 24 August 1572 and extending over several weeks, the most violent series of confrontations between French Catholics and Protestants, each side trying to secure control over the weak French government.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) agreement that ended six decades of war (fought mainly in Italy) between the French (Valois) kings and the Spanish (Habsburg) rulers. France was denied power in Italy. The bankruptcy of both countries; Turkish pressure on the Habsburgs; and religious stri
Union of Utrecht (1581) alliance of 7 northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
viceroyalties administrative purposes, Spanish possessions in the Americas were divided in to 4 units called viceroyalties. The viceroy (imperial government) held broad civil and military authority and was assisted by a council of 12-15 judges, the audiencia which held
witch person usually a woman, believed to possess evil powers acquired by contract or association with the devil.
Created by: mcdougcf