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A&P Tissue

4 Types of tissues: Epithelia, Connective, Muscle and Nervous.

TermDefinition
Epithelia Tissue composition tightly packed cells with minimal extraceullar matrix
Epithelia Tissue Functions Covers body and organ surfaces, lines body and organ cavities , forms some glands
Connective Tissue Composition contains cells, protein fibers and ground substance
Connective Tissue Functions Binds, supports and protects other tissues and organs
Muscle Tissue Composition cells that may be spindle-shaped, branching or cylindrical, contains myofilaments.
Muscle Tissue Functions moves the skeleton or organ walls
epithelial apical surface free superficial layer which is exposed to external environment or to some internal body surface
epithelial basal surface fixed/deep surface were epithelium is attached to underlying connective tissue
basement membrane molecular levels: lamina lucida, lamina densa, reticular lamina
epithelial avascularity lack blood vessels. Nutrients are obtained directly across apical surface or diffusion across the basal surface from blood vessels within the underlaying connective tissue.
functions of epithelial tissue Physical protection: protect surfaces from dehydration, abrasion, destruction Selective Permeability: all substances pass through epithelium Secretions: some specialized to produce and release secretions Sensation: has sensory nerve endings
Three shapes of epithelial cells squamous, cuboidal, columnar
three components of connective tissue cells, protein fibers, ground state
Fibroblasts connective tissue, resident cells, most abundant resident cells in connective tissue proper. Produce fibers and ground substance
Mesenchymal cells connective tissue, resident cells. embryonic stem cells within connective tissue, when tissue becomes damaged, the cells will divide
Adipocytes connective tissue, resident cells, fat cells, appear in small clusters within some types of connective tissue proper.
Fixed Macrophages connective tissue, resident cells, large irregular shaped, dispersed throughout matrix, phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens. Stimulate immune systems and attract numerous wandering cells to the tissue.
Mast cells connective tissue, wandering cell, found close to blood vessels, secrete heparin to inhibit blood clotting and histamine to dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow (inflammatory response)
plasma cells connective tissue, wandering cell, formed when B-lymphocytes are activated by exposure to foreign materials, produce antibodies
Free Macrophages connective tissue, wandering cell, mobile phagocytic cells that wander
Neutrophils connective tissue, wandering cell, a type of leukocyte that phagocytize bacteria
lymphocytes connective tissue, wandering cell, a leukocyte which attacks foreign materials
Collagen Fibers connective tissue, protein fiber, unbranched cable like long fibers that are strong, flexible and resistant to stretching. Forms about 25% of bodies protein.
Reticular Fibers connective tissue, protein fiber, branching interwoven framework that is tough but flexible. Abundant in the stroma (connective framework) of organs such as lymph nodes, liver and spleen.
Elastic Fibers connective tissue, protein fiber, contain elastin. Elastic fibers stretch and recoil easily (yellow fibers) Abundant in skin, arteries and lungs, allows them to return to their normal shape after being stretched.
Ground substance forms the extracellular matrix with the protein fibers.
Glycosaminoglycans connective tissue, ground substance, polysaccharide that is composed completely of carbohydrate building blocks. GAGs are able to attract and absorb H2O
Functions of Connective Tissue physical protection, support and structural framework, binding of structures, storage, transport, immune protection/response
simple squamous rapid diffusion, filtration, secretion in some serous membranes; air sacks in lungs, lining vessels and nodes, serous membrane lining
simple cuboidal absorption and secretion, forms glands and small ducts; thyroid glands follicles, surface of ovary, kidney tubules, secretory regions of ducts of most glands
nonciliated simple columnar contain goblet cells, absorption and secretion of mucin; lines digestive tract
ciliated simple columnar secretion of mucin and movement of mucus along apical surface by cilia; lining of bronchioles in respiratory tract, uterine tubes
ciliated pseudo stratified columnar contain goblet cells, used for protection, also involved in movement of mucus across surface; Lining of larger air ways in respiratory tract: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
nonciliated pseudo stratified columnar protection; rare, lining parts of male urethra and epididymis
Keratinized stratified squamous apical cells are dead and filled with keratin, used for protection of underlying tissue from abrasion; epidermis of skin
nonkeratinized stratified squamous apical cells are alive , used for protection from abrasion; lining of oral cavity, part of pharynx, esophagus, lining of vagina and anus
stratified cuboidal protection and secretion; ducts of most endocrine glands, some regions of male urethra and ovarian follicles
stratified columnar protection and secretion; large ducts of salivary glands and membranous part of male urethra
transitional epithelium distension (stretching) to accommodate volume changes in urine related organs; lining of urinary bladder, ureters, and parts of urethra
Areolar connective tissue Connective tissue proper; loose connective tissue (viscous GS, fibroblasts) protects organs, binds skin and some epithelium to deeper tissue; papillary layer of dermis, subcutaneous layer, surrounds organs, nerves, some muscle cells and blood vessels
adipose connective tissue CT proper, Loose CT (adipocytes, many blood vessels) stores energy, insulated, cushions and protects found in subcutaneous layer, surrounds and covers some organs
reticular connective tissue CT Proper, Loose CT (viscous GS, reticular fibers, leukocytes, fibroblasts)
dense regular connective tissue CT Proper, Dense CT (collagen fibers, fibroblasts,reduced blood supply) attached bone to bone, muscle to bone, resists stress applied in one direction Tendons, ligaments
Dense irregular connective tissue CT Proper, Dense CT (collagen, fibroblasts, more GS than regular CT, extensive blood supply; withstands stress applied in all directions most of dermis of skin, periosteum covering bone, perichondrium covering cartilage, some organ capsules
Elastic connective tissue CT Proper, Dense CT (elastic fibers, fibroblasts) allows for stretching and recoiling; walls of elastic arteries (aorta), trachea, vocal cords
Hyaline cartilage Supporting CT , Cartilage (irregularly arranged chondrocytes in lacunae, usually covered by perichondrium) Provides support; forms most fetal skeleton; Tip of nose, trachea, larynx, costal cartilage, articular ends of long bones
Fibrocartilage Supporting CT, Cartilage (parallel collagen fibers, large chondrocytes in lacunae, no perichondrium) Resists compression, shook absorber in some joints; intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis. menisci of knee joints
Elastic cartilage Supporting CT, Cartilage (elastic weblike mesh, chondrocytes in lacunae, perichondrium present) Maintains shape while permitting extensive flexibility; External ear; epiglottis of larynx
Bone Supporting CT (calcified extracellular matrix with osteocytes in lacunae, bone arranged in osteons, spongey is a meshwork) Spongy bones contain hemopoietic tissue and it the site for hemopoiesis; bones of body
Blood Fluid CT (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, proteins dissolved in plasma) erythrocytes transport gases, leukocytes help protect from infectious agents, platelets and proteins clot, plasma transports
Mesenchyme Embryonic CT (GS is viscous with immature protein fibers, mesenchymal cells are stellate or spindle-shaped) Origin for connective tissues; In embryo and fetus
Mucous CT Embryonic CT (mesenchymal cells scattered within viscous GS; immature protein fibers very abundant) Supports structure in umbilical cord
Created by: 1557312094364910