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Ch.18 Vocab

Mac

WordDefinition
1. Copernican hypothesis The stars and planets, including earth, revolved around a fixed sun
Cartesian absolutism decided it was necessary to doubt everything that could reasonably be doubt, use deductive reasoning from self-evident principles to ascertain scientific laws
Law of inertia an object continues in a constant state of motion forever unless stopped by some external force
rationalism theory that nothing was to be accepted on faith, everything was to be submitted to the rational, critical, and scientific way of thinking
skepticism nothing can ever be known beyond doubt, humanity’s best hope was open-minded toleration
Tabula Rasa referring to the human mind at birth, a blank tablet
Enlightment movement that emphasizes the use of reason to examine doctrines and traditions brought on from religious beliefs
Enlightened absolutism when absolute rulers tried to rule in an “enlightened” manner, making many reforms
philosophes – the leading philosophical and political writers that proclaimed they were the ones bringing the light on knowledge into the Age on Enlightenment
Kepler Brahe’s assistant that invented the Three Laws of Planetary Motion
Galileo greatest achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method, formulated law of inertia, created sophisticated telescope
Bacon rejected Aristotelian and medieval method of using speculative reasoning to build general theories and argued that new knowledge had to be pursued through experimental research
Descartes discovered analytic geometry, decided it was necessary to doubt everything that could reasonably be doubt, use deductive reasoning from self-evident principles to ascertain scientific laws.
Newton created the laws of gravity
Montesquieu argued that despotism could be avoided if there was a separation of powers and that an independent upper class was especially important
Voltaire the advocate of deism
Copernicus mathematician that came up with the halo centric theory that the sun is the center of the universe
Created by: ojuice