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Blood Pt. 1 & 2

Anatomy and Physiology = Bio 2020; Blood Chapter 18 Part 1 and 2

What is blood? continuously regenerated connective tissue that moves gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones transported through the cardiovascular system
What does the heart pump? blood
What do arteries do? transport blood AWAY from heart
What do veins do? Transport blood TOWARD heart
What do capillaries do? Allow exchange between blood and body tissues
Name the 2 blood components. Formed elements and Plasma
What do the Formed elements include? Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets
What are erythrocytes? red blood cells
What do erythrocytes do? transport respiratory gases in the blood
What do leukocytes do? Defend against pathogens
What are leukocytes? white blood cells
What do platelets do? Help form clots to prevent blood loss
What is the fluid portion of blood? Plasma
What does the plasma portion of the blood contain? Plasma proteins and dissolved solutes
What are the functions of blood? Transportation, Protection, and Regulation of Body Conditions
What does the blood transport? Transports formed elements, dissolved molecules and ions. Carries oxygen from and carbon dioxide to the lungs. Transports nutrients, hormones, heat, and waste products.
Name the molecules that help protect against pathogens. Leukocytes, plasma proteins, and other molecules (of the immune system)
Name the elements that protect against blood loss. Platelets and certain plasma proteins
In what ways does out blood regulate our body conditions? Blood regulates our body temperature, body pH, and fluid balance.
How does the blood regulate body temperature? Blood absorbs heat from body cells (esp. muscle). Heat released at skin blood vessels.
How does the blood regulate body pH? Blood absorbs acid and base from body cells. Blood contains chemical buffers.
How does the blood regulate fluid balance? Water is added to blood from GI tract, Water is lost through urine, skin, and respiration. Fluid is exchanged between blood and interstitial fluid. Blood contains proteins and ions helping maintain osmotic balance
What does the color of blood depend on? Degree of oxygenation.
What is the color of oxygen-rich Blood? Bright red
What is the color of oxygen-POOR blood? Dark red
What is the number volume of blood in an adult? About 5 liters
What is the viscosity of blood? 4-5 times thicker than water
What does the viscosity of blood depends on? On the amount of dissolved and suspended substances relative to amount of fluid.
What needs to happen for viscosity to increase? 1. erythrocyte number needs to increase 2. Amount of fluid needs to decrease
Plasma concentration of solutes (e.g., proteins, ions) determines what? The direction of osmosis across capillary walls
What is the temperature of blood? Blood is 1 degree C higher than measured body temperature -- it warms the are through which it travels
Is blood pH alkaline of acidic? Slightly alkaline. pH is between 7.35 and 7.45
What is it crucial for blood pH to be slightly alkaline? It is crucial for normal plasma protein shape (Avoiding denaturation).
What separates the blood (plasma and formed elements) into parts? centrifuge
What is the component of blood that is a straw-colored liquid at top of tube and about 55% of sample when separated by a centrifuge? Plasma
What is the component of blood that is about 1% middle layer with gray-white color composed of leukocytes and platelets when separated by the blood by a centrifuge? Buffy Coat
What is the lower, red layer that is about 44% of a sample of blood separated by a centrifuge? Erythrocytes
What is the BASIC definition of hematocrit? Percentage of volume of all formed elements.
What is the CLINICAL definition of hematocrit? Percentage of only erythrocytes
What is the percentage of hematocrit in adult males? 42 - 56 %
What is the percentage of hematocrit in females? 38 - 46 %
Why do males have more RBCs than females? Testosterone causes more erythropoietin secretion by kidney.
What is a blood smear? Think layer of blood placed on microscope slide and stained
In a blood smear, what is the most numerous? It is also pink, anucleate, and biconcave Erythrocytes.
In a blood smear, what are the cells that have a noticeable nucleus, are larger than erythrocytes, and varies in form? Leukocytes
In a blood smear, what are small fragments of cells? Platelets
What is plasma composed of? 92% water 7% Plasma proteins 1% Dissolved molecules and ions
What is plasma? An extracellular fluid that has a similar composition to interstitial fluid, but has a higher protein concentration
What is blood? A colloid. The Plasma contains dispersed proteins
Where are most plasma proteins produced? In the liver
If the plasma protein is not produced in the liver, how else is it produced? Other plasma proteins are produced by leukocytes and other organs
What do plasma proteins exert? colloid osmotic pressure.
What does the exertion of colloid osmotic pressure by the plasma proteins do? Prevents loss of fluid from blood as it moves through capillaries. Helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure.
How can the exertion of colloid osmotic pressure by plasma proteins be decreased? By diseases resulting in fluid loss from blood and tissue swelling. E.g. liver diseases decrease production of plasma proteins; kidney diseases increase the elimination of plasma proteins
Which plasma protein is the smallest and most abundant group of plasma proteins (58%)? Albumin
Which plasma protein can exert the greatest colloid osmotic pressure as well as act as a transport protein from some lipids, hormones and ions? Albumin
Which plasma protein is the second largest group of plasma proteins (37%)? Globulin
What are Gamma -globulins? Immunoglobuns or antibodies Part of body's defenses
What do the smaller alpha-globulin and larger beta-globulin do? Transport some water-insoluble molecules, hormones, metals, ions
Which plasma protein makes up only 4% of plasma proteins? Fibrinogen
Which plasma protein contributes to blood clot formation? Fibrinogen
Following trauma, what does the plasma protein fibrinogen convert to? Insoluble fibrin strands
What is plasma with clotting proteins removed? Serum
Which plasma protein makes up less than 1% of total proteins, including enzymes and hormones? Regulatory Proteins
Read slide 20 if you want Slide is all black. So i don't think its mandatory
What is Hemopoiesis? The production of formed elements
Where does hemopoiesis occur? In red bone marrow of certain bones
What are hemocytoblasts? Stem cells
What does it mean when it says that Hemocytoblasts are pluripotent? It can differentiate into many types of cells
What are the two lines that hemocytoblasts produce? Myeloid line and lymphoid line
What does the Myeloid line do? Forms erythrocytes, all leukocytes except lymphocytes, and erythrocytes (cells that produce platelets)
What does the Lymphoid Line do? Forms only lymphocytes
What stimulates hemopoiesis? Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)
What does Multi-colony-stimulating factor (multi-CSF) do? Increases formation of erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets
What does Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) do? Accelerates formation of granuylocytes and monocytes
What does Macrophage Colony-Stimulating factor (M-CSF) do? Stimulates production of monocytes
What does Thrombopoietin do? Stimulates production of platelets
What does Erythropoietin (EPO) do? Increases rate of production and maturation of erythrocytes
What are Erythrompoietin (EPO)? A hormone from kidneys (rest are growth factors)
What is Erythropoiesis? Red blood cell production
What does erythropoiesis require? Iron, B vitamins, amino acids
What does erythropoiesis begins with? Myeloid stem cell - responds of multi-CSF
What do myeloid stem cells form? progenitor cells --> proerythroblast --> erythroblast --> normoblast --> reticulocyte --> erythrocyte
What is a proerythroblast? a large nucleated cell
What does an erythroblast do? Produces hemoglobin
What are reticulocytes? cells that lack organelles except ribosomes that make hemoglobin
What is an erythrocyte? A reticulocyte in which ribosomes have degenerated
What is leukopoiesis? The production of leukocytes
What does leukopoiesis involves? maturation of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes
Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are all ____. Granulocytes
Multi-CSF and GM-CSF cause myeloid cell to form what? Progenitor cell
Progenitor ell becomes _____ that becomes a grnulocyte. Myeloblast
Where do monocytes dervie from? Myeloid stem cells
M-CSF prompts progenitor cell to become a ______. Monoblast
Monoblast becomes a promonocyte, which matures into a _____> Monocyte
Where do Lymphocytes derive from? Lymphoid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells differentiate into what? B-Lymphoblasts and T-lymphoblasts
What do lymphoblasts mature into? B-lymphocytes and t-Lymphocytes
Some lymphoid stem cells differentiate directly into _____ natural killer cells
What is Thrombopoiesis? Platelet production
Megakaryoblasts is produced from what? myeloid stem cell
Megakaryoblast forms megakarycote under influence of ____. Thrombopoiesis
What does megakaryocyte produce? Tthousands of platelets
Megakaryocyte are large cells that produces ______ - long extensions. proplatelets.
Proplatelets extend through what? Through blood vessel wall into bloodstream.
Blood flow "slices" off fragments of proplatelets which are called? platelets
SLIDE 32 text is all black. read if you want. The text is all black
What is hemoglobin? A red-pigmented protein that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What is the term oxygenated when maximally loaded with oxygen
What is the term deoxygenated? when some oxygen lost
One hemoglobin molecules is composed of how many globins? 4 globins
What are the globins of hemoglobin consist of? 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains
What do the alpha chains and beta chains have? Heme group
What is a heme group? A porphyrin ring with an iron in its center
Oxygen binds to iron ions, so what does this mean for each hemoglobin? That it can bind to 4 oxygen molecules
What does oxygen bind to? iron
Is the bond between oxygen and iron strong or week? fairly weak -- rapid attachment in lungs and rapid detachment in body tissues
What does carbon dioxide bind to? globin protein (not iron)
Is the bond between carbon dioxide and globin protein strong or weak? fairly week -- attatchement in body tissues and detachment in lungs
What controls erythropoiesis? Erythropoietin (EPO)
What is erythropoietin (EPO)? A hormone produced primarily in the kidneys. Liver produces just a little.
What stimulates EPO secretion? Decrease in blood oxygen
How does red marrow myeloid cells respond to EPO? By making more erythrocytes and releasing them into circulation
What do erythrocytes increase? blood's oxygen carring capacity?
What does the increase in blood oxygen inhibit? Inhibits EPO release (negative feedback)
Why do males have a higher erythrocyte count, a higher hematocrit? They have higher testosterone
What stimulates EPO production in the kidney? Testosterone
Environmental factors such as _____ influence EPO levels. Altitude
What type of oxygen levels at high altitude stimulate EPO production? low oxygen levels
What does the increase of erythropoiesis do? Raises blood's oxygen carrying capacity and viscosity.
Why do some athletes use the method of blood doping? To enhance performance
What are some of the dangers of blood doping? - Increased Blood Viscosity - Heart required to work harder --> may cause permanent cardiovascular damage - Banned from athletic competition
What are the 2 methods of blood doping? 1. self donation 2. pharmaceutical EPO
Describe the blood doping method of self donation of erythrocytes. - Blood removal prior to competition increases EPO production - Erythrocytes transfused back prior to competition
Why can't erythrocytes synthesize proteins for repairs? Because they lack organelles
What is the maximum life span of erythrocytes? 120 days
Where are old erythrocytes phagocytized? Spleen or liver
What are globins and membrane proteins broken down into? amino acids used by body for protein synthesis
What protein transports iron from hemoglobin to the liver? Transferring protein
Ferritin and hemosiderin are bound to what? Storage proteins
Most iron is bound to what to be stored in liver and spleen? ferritin
What is transported to red bone marrow as needed for erythrocyte production? Iron from hemoglobin
There are some bolded letters in slide 44, but the text is all black. Read it if you want. Text is black, but some terms are bolded in black
What are the symptoms of Anemia? Lethargy, shortness of breath, pallor, palpitations
What causes Anemia? - Decreased of abnormal erythrocyte formation - Heavy blood loss - Deficiency of iron, vit B12, or folic acid - Genetic defects
What is Anemia? Either the percentage of erythrocytes is lower than normal or the oxygen-carrying capacity is reduced
How are some cases of Anemia treated? Pharmaceutical EPO
Anemia may sometimes signal what? An underlying problem such as an undiagnosed stomach ulcer
What do blood types/groups depend on? Surface antigens protecting from erythrocyte member
ABO blood group is determined by what? The presence or abscense of A antigen and B antigen?
What are A and B antigens? Membrane Glycoproteins
Type A Blood Erythrocytes have antigen A
Type B blood Erythrocytes have antigen B
Type AB blood Erythrocytes have both antigens A and B
Type O blood Erythrocytes have neither A or B antigen
What does a person's antigen determine? Their antibody status
A person does NOT have _____ for their own surface proteins. Antibodies
A person DOES have antibodies to ______ that are FOREIGN TO THEM. antigens
Type A blood has what antibodies in its plasma? Anti-B antibodies
Type B blood has what antibodies in its plasma? Anti-A antibodies
Type AB blood has what antibodies in its plasma? Neither Anti-A antibodies or Anti-B antibodies
Type O blood has what antibodies in its plasma? Both Anti-A antibodies and Anti-B antibodies
What antigen is Rh factor? Antigen D
What does the presence or absence of Rh factor determine? If blood type is negative or positive
Normally people do not have antibodies to Rh factor (anti-D antibodies. But it does appear, but how or when? Only after Rh negative person is exposed to Rh positive blood
What is the blood type if all 3 antigens are present? AB+
What happens if someone receives an incompatible blood transfusion? Agglutination. Recipient's antibodies bind to transfused erythrocytes and clump them together --> can block blood vessels and prevent normal circulation; can cause hemolysis
What is hemolysis? Rupture of erythrocytes, organ damage
What antibodies will an Rh - mom when she is exposed to Rh + blood during childbirth of Rh+ baby? Anti-D antibodies
What may happen in future pregnancies if an Rh- mom now has anti-D antibodies? In future pregnancy, may cross placenta, destroy fetal RBCs
What results with Rh incompatibility and pregnancy? hemoyltic disease of the newborn?
What would an infant have if he/she was diagnosed with hemolytic disease? Anemia and hyperbilirubinemia
What is hyperbilirubinemia? Heart Failure
How do you prevent Rh incompatibility when a Rh- women is pregnant? Give pregnant Rh negative woman special immunoglobulins
Created by: elizabethcosio



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