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Human Body


Anter(o) Front
Caud(o) Tail, downward
Cephal(o) Head, upward
Dis(o) Away from
Dors(o) Back
Infer(o) Below
Later(o) Side
Medi(o) Middle
Poster(o) Back, behind
Proxim(o) Near (proximate)
Super(o) Above
Ventr(o) Front, belly
Anterior/Ventral Referring to the front of the body.
Posterior/Dorsal Referring to the back of the body.
Cephalad/Superior Referring to above the waistline.
Caudal/Inferior Referring to below the waistline.
Lateral Referring to the sides of the body.
Medial Referring to the middle of the body.
Proximal (closest)Referring to the center of the body.
Distal (farthest) Referring to the outer part of the body.
Superficial Something that is on the surface or shallow.
Intermediate (between) Referring to a structure being or occurring at the middle place.
Deep Refers to farther away from the surface.
Unilateral A structure is located/ to be found on only one side of the body.
Bilateral A structure is located/ to be found on both sides of the body.
Ipsilateral A structure is located/ to be found on the same sides of the body.
Contralateral A structure is located/to be found on the opposite side of the body.
The Frontal or Coronal Plane A vertical plane that separates the front from the back of the body.
The Sagittal Plane(lateral) A vertical plan that separates the body into the right and left sides.
The mid-sagittal or median plane A Specific sagittal plane that divides the body into right and left at the body's exact midline.
The Transverse Plane(horizontal or axial plane) Horizontal plane that runs parallel to the ground and through the waistline. It divides the body into upper and lower halves.
Cavities Fluid-filled spaces that contain the internal, visceral, or splanchnic body organs.
The dorsal body cavity & the ventral body cavity The 2 major closed cavity of the human body.
The Dorsal Body Cavity Located on the posterior region of the body.
The Cranial Cavity(Calvaria) Enclosed by the skull and contains the brain.
The Spinal Cavity(Vertebral cavity or vertebral canal) Contains the spinal cord.
The Ventral Body Cavity Located on the anterior region.
The Thoracic(Chest Cavity) This cavity contains the esophagus, lungs, trachea, heart, and aorta.
The Abdominopelvic Contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas, urethra, and kidneys.
The Pelvic Cavity Contains the urinary bladder, urethra, rectum, uterus, part of the large intestine, and the reproductive organs.
The nasal cavity Nose
The oral cavity Mouth
The Orbital cavities Eyes
The synovial cavities Joint cavity
The tympanic cavities(middle ear cavities) A small cavity which surrounds the bones of the middle ear.
Regions Areas of the body that perform special functions or are supplied by specific blood or nerve cells.
The abdominal area Divided into 9 anatomic regions, which facilitates the diagnosis of abdominal problems.
Umbilical region Surrounds the umbilicus(navel). Organs that are found in the umbilical region include the Umbilicus, Jejunum, Ileum, and the Duodenum. On either sides are thee right and left lumbar regions.
The right lumbar region Comprises of the Gallbladder, the Liver and the right Colon.
The left lumbar region Descending Colon and The Left Kidney.
Epigastric region The region directly above the umbilical region. The organs that are found in this region include the Stomach, Liver, Pancreas ,Duodenum , Spleen , and the Adrenal Glands. To the right and left are the right and left hypochondriac regions.
The right hypochondriac region Comprises of the Liver, Gallbladder, Right Kidney, and the Small Intestine.
The left hypochondriac region Comprises of the Spleen, Colon, Left Kidney, and the Pancreas.
Hypogastric region The region directly below the umbilical region. The organs included are Urinary Bladder, Sigmoid Colon, and The Female Reproductive Organs.
The right iliac region(Fossa) Comprises of the Descending Colon and The Sigmoid Colon.
The Right Upper Quadrant(RUQ) This region is often assessed to localize pain as well as tenderness. It is often tender in clients with cholecystisis, hepatitis, or a developing peptic ulcer.
The Left Upper Quadrant(LUQ) This region is often tender in clients with abnormalities of the intestines and in clients with appendictitis
The Right Lower Quadrant(RLQ) This region, which stretches from the median plane to the right side of the body and from the umbilical plane to the right inguinal ligament, is often tender and painful in the clients with appendicitis.
The Left Lower Quadrant(LLQ) This region, which is located below the umbilicus plane, is usually tender and painful in clients with ovarian cysts or a pelvic inflammation. Abdominal pain in this region can also be a symptom of colitis, diverticulitis, or ureteral colic.
The Cervical Region(Abbreviation C) Consists of seven cervical vertebrae. They are the of the true vertebrae and they are located in the neck region closest to the skull.
Thoracic or Dorsal Region They are located in the chest region of the spine.
Lumbar Region Located at the flank or loin area between the ribs and the hip bone.
Sacral Region Located at the bottom of the spine.
Coccygeal Region(tailbone) Composed of 4 vertebrae that are fused together to form one bone: the coccyx.
Auricular Region This is the region around the ears.
Axillary The armpit region.
Clavicular The region on either side of two slender bones.
Infraorbital The region below the eyes.
Infrascapular This region is the region on each side of the chest, down to last rib.
Inguinal This is the region of the groin.
Interscapular This is the region on the back between the shoulder blades.
Lumbar The region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis below the Infrascapular area.
Mammary The breast area.
Mental The chin area.
Occipital The lower posterior region of the head.
Pectoral The chest area.
Perineal The region between the anus and the external reproductive organs(the perineum).
Popliteal The area behind the knee.
Pubic The area above the pubis and below the Hypogastric region.
Sacral The area above the sacrum, between the hipbones.
Submental The area below the chin.
Supraclavicular The area above the clavicles.
Created by: E.Fleurimond