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A & P Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Hematocrit Percentage of total blood volume that is composed of red blood cells.
Hemoglobin Essential molecule of the red blood cell that serves as the binding site for oxygen and carbon dioxide; composed of two molecules: globin and heme.
Hemolysis Rupture of red blood cells as a result of disease or old age.
Hemostasis Sequence of events that cause a blood clot to form and bleeding to stop.
Plasma Liquid component of blood.
Platelets Part of the formed elements of the blood; play a vital role in blood clotting.
Red Blood Cells Contain hemoglobin, a protein responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange; erythoctes.
White Blood Cells Fight Infection and protect the body through various mechanisms; leukocytes.
Agglutination Red blood cells clumping together usually in response to an antibody; can block small blood vessels and cause hemolysis.
Antibody Cells that circulate in plasma and attack red blood cells with foreign antigens or antigens that are different from those of the host.
Antigen Protein on the surface of RBCs that is used to identify blood type; a molecule on the surface of cells that identifies cells as either "self" or "nonself" cells.
Erythoblastosis A severe hemolytic disease of a fetus or newborn caused by the production of maternal antibodies against the fetal red blood cell antigens, usually involving RH incompatibility between the mother and fetus.
Rh Factor Antigen of the Rh blood group that is found on the surface of red blood cells; people with the Rh factor are Rh positive and those lacking it are Rh negative.
RhoGAM Immune serum that prevents a mother's blood from becoming sensitized to foreign antibodies from her fetus.
Universal Donor Someone with type O blood, type O has no antigens that an be attacked by the host's blood, so it can be donated to anyone.
Universal Recipient Someone with type AB blood; type AB blood has neither A or B antibodies, so a universal recipient can safely receive a transfusion of any blood type.
ALL Most common form of leukemia in adults over 70, overproduction of lymphocytes.
AML Most common form of leukemia in adults, develops when the bone marrow produces too many myeloblasts,
Anemia A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or an insufficient amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
CLL Leukemia characterized by extremely high levels of lymphocytes; most often found in middle-age adults.
CML Form of leukemia characterized by overproduction of granulocytes.
Hemophilia Blood does not clot properly due to the absence of a clotting factor.
Iron-Deficient Anemia Most common anemia; caused by an insufficient dietary intake of iron, loss of iron from intestinal bleeding, or iron-level depletion during pregnancy.
Jaundice Blood disorder characterized by yellow-colored skin and whites of the eyes.
Leukemia Cancer caused by the production of an extremely high number of immature white blood cells in the bone marrow.
Pernicious Anemia Severe anemia caused by the inability of the intestines to absorb vitamin B12 which is essential for the formation of red blood cells, often occurs in older adults.
Phlebotomy Drawing of blood; standard treatment for polycythemia.
Polycythemia Condition in which the bone marrow manufactures too many red blood cells, caused by prolonged altitude exposure and a genetic mutation.
Sickle Cell Anemia Disease in which the red blood cells are shaped like a sickle or crescent rather than a disk; caused by irregularly shaped hemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells,
Created by: Andrearoberts